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MySQL Reference Manual for version 5.0.0-alpha. - 2 Installing MySQL Go to the first, previous, next, last section, table of contents.


2 Installing MySQL

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:

  1. Determine whether your platform is supported. Please note that not all supported systems are equally good for running MySQL on them. On some it is much more robust and efficient than others. See section 2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL for details.
  2. Choose a distribution to install. Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in serveral distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. We also provide public access to our current source tree, for those who want to see our most recent developments and help us test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see section 2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install.
  3. Download the distribution that you want to install. For a list of sites from which you can obtain MySQL, see section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL. You can verify the integrity of the distribution using the instructions in section 2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG.
  4. Install the distribution. For binary distributions, use the instructions in in section 2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-like Systems. For source distributions, use the instructions in section 2.3 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution. Additional installation procedures include the following:
    • For post-installation procedures, see section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing. These procedures apply whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.
    • If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than installing MySQL for the first time, see section 2.5 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.
    • If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See section 2.7 Perl Installation Notes.

The last part of the chapter provides information on system-specific problems you may run into.

2.1 General Installation Issues

Before installing MySQL, you should do the following:

  1. Determine whether or not MySQL runs on your platform.
  2. Choose a distribution to install.
  3. Download the distribution and verify its integrity.

This section contains the information necessary to carry out these steps. After doing so, you can use the instructions in later sections of the chapter to install the distribution that you choose.

2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL

This section lists the operating systems on which you can expect to be able to run MySQL.

We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems that have a C++ compiler and a working implementation of POSIX threads. (Thread suport is needed for the server. To compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++ compiler.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Linux (SuSE and Red Hat), FreeBSD, and Sun Solaris (Versions 8 and 9).

MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following combinations of operating system and thread package. Note that for many operating systems, native thread support works only in the latest versions.

Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:

  • General stability of the thread library. A platform may have an excellent reputation otherwise, but MySQL will be only as stable as the thread library if that library is unstable in the code that is called by MySQL, even if everything else is perfect.
  • The ability of the kernel and/or thread library to take advantage of symmetric multi-processor (SMP) systems. In other words, when a process creates a thread, it should be possible for that thread to run on a different CPU than the original process.
  • The ability of the kernel and/or the thread library to run many threads which acquire and release a mutex over a short critical region frequently without excessive context switches. In other words, if the implementation of pthread_mutex_lock() is too anxious to yield CPU time, this will hurt MySQL tremendously. If this issue is not taken care of, adding extra CPUs will actually make MySQL slower.
  • General filesystem stability and performance.
  • If your tables are big, the ability of the filesystem to deal with large files at all and to deal with them efficiently.
  • Our level of expertise here at MySQL AB with the platform. If we know a platform well, we enable platform-specific optimizations and fixes at compile time. We can also provide advice on configuring your system optimally for MySQL.
  • The amount of testing we have done internally for similar configurations.
  • The number of users that have successfully run MySQL on that platform in similar configurations. If this number is high, the chances of encountering platform-specific surprises are much smaller.

Based on the preceding criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86 with SuSE Linux 8.2, 2.4 kernel, and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and SPARC with Solaris (2.7-9). FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it will join the top club once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we will be able to include into the top category all other platforms on which MySQL currently compiles and runs okay, but not quite with the same level of stability and performance. This will require some effort on our part in cooperation with the developers of the operating system and library components that MySQL depends on. If you are interested in improving one of those components, are in a position to influence its development, and need more detailed instructions on what MySQL needs to run better, send an email message to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

Please note that the purpose of the preceding comparison is not to say that one operating system is better or worse than another in general. We are talking only about choosing an OS for the specific purpose of running MySQL. With this in mind, the result of this comparison would be different if we considered more factors. And in some cases, the reason one OS is better than the other could simply be that we have put forth more effort into testing on and optimizing for that particular platform. We are just stating our observations to help you decide which platform to use MySQL in your setup.

2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install

When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and you can pick the one that best fits your needs. After deciding which version to install, you can choose a distribution format. Releases are available in binary or source format.

2.1.2.1 Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install

The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production (stable) release or a development release. In the MySQL development process, multiple release series co-exist, each at a different stage of maturity:

  • MySQL 5.0 is the newest development release series and is under very active development for new features. Until recently it was available only in preview form from the BitKeeper source repository. An early alpha release has now been issued to allow more widespread testing.
  • MySQL 4.1 is a development release series to which major new features have been added. It is still at alpha status. Sources and binaries are available for use and testing on development systems.
  • MySQL 4.0 is the current stable/production-quality release series. New releases are issued for bugfixes. No new features are added that could diminish the code stability.
  • MySQL 3.23 is the old stable/production-quality release series. This series is retired, so new releases are issued only to fix critical bugs.

We don't believe in a complete freeze, as this also leaves out bug fixes and things that ``must be done.'' ``Somewhat frozen'' means that we may add small things that ``almost surely will not affect anything that's already working.'' Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an earlier series propagate to later series.

  • Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to some system for which there is no binary distribution, we recommend going with the production release series. Currently this is MySQL 4.0. Note that all MySQL releases, even those from development series, are checked with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before being issued.
  • If you are running an old system and want to upgrade, but don't want to take chances with a non-seamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest version in the same release series you are using (where only the last part of the version number is newer than yours). We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make small, relatively safe changes to that version.
  • If you want to use new features not present in the production release series, you can use a version from a development series. Note that development releases are not as stable as production releases.
  • If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current patches and bugfixes, you can use one of our BitKeeper repositories. These are not ``releases'' as such, but are available as previews of the code on which future releases will be based.

The MySQL naming scheme uses release names that consist of three numbers and a suffix, for example, mysql-4.1.0-alpha. The numbers within the release name are is interpreted like this:

  • The first number (4) is the major version and also describes the file format. All Version 4 releases have the same file format.
  • The second number (1) is the release level. Taken together, the major version and release level constitute the release series number.
  • The third number (0) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new release. Usually you want the latest version for the series you have chosen.

For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When there are major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the first number is increased.

Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • alpha indicates that the release contains some large section of new code that hasn't been 100% tested. Known bugs (usually there are none) should be documented in the News section. See section C MySQL Change History. There are also new commands and extensions in most alpha releases. Active development that may involve major code changes can occur in an alpha release, but everything will be tested before issuing a release. For this reason, there should be no known bugs in any MySQL release.
  • beta means that all new code has been tested. No major new features that could cause corruption in old code are added. There should be no known bugs. A version changes from alpha to beta when there haven't been any reported fatal bugs within an alpha version for at least a month and we have no plans to add any features that could make any old command unreliable.
  • gamma is a beta that has been around a while and seems to work fine. Only minor fixes are added. This is what many other companies call a release.
  • If there is no suffix, it means that the version has been run for a while at many different sites with no reports of bugs other than platform-specific bugs. Only critical bug fixes are applied to the release. This is what we call a production (stable) release.

MySQL uses a naming scheme that is slightly different from most other products. In general, it's relatively safe to use any version that has been out for a couple of weeks without being replaced with a new version within the release series.

All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

Note that all releases have been tested at least with:

An internal test suite
The `mysql-test' directory contains an extensive set of test cases. We run these tests for virtually every server binary. See section 22.1.2 MySQL Test Suite for more information about this test suite.
The MySQL benchmark suite
This suite runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.
The crash-me test
This test tries to determine what features the database supports and what its capabilities and limitations are. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100 gigabytes of data to work with.

2.1.2.2 Choosing a Distribution Format

After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should decide whether to use a binary distribution or a source distribution. In most cases you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM files for Linux or DMG package installers for Mac OS X. Distributions also are available as Zip archives or compressed tar files.

Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:

  • Binary distributions generally are easier to install than source distributions.
  • To satisfy different user requirements, we provide two different binary versions: one compiled with the non-transactional storage engines (a small, fast binary), and one configured with the most important extended options like transaction-safe tables. Both versions are compiled from the same source distribution. All native MySQL clients can connect to both MySQL versions. The extended MySQL binary distribution is marked with the -max suffix and is configured with the same options as mysqld-max. See section 5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server. If you want to use the MySQL-Max RPM, you must first install the standard MySQL-server RPM.

Circumstances under which you probably will be better off with a source installation include the following:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ``ready to run'' at any place, but you may want to have even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.
  • You want to configure mysqld with some extra features that are not in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options that you may want to use:
    • --with-innodb (default for MySQL 4.0 and onwards)
    • --with-berkeley-db (not available on all platforms)
    • --with-raid
    • --with-libwrap
    • --with-named-z-libs (This is done for some of the binaries)
    • --with-debug[=full]
  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions. For example, distributions normally are compiled with support for all character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can recompile it with support for only the character sets you need.
  • You have a special compiler (like pgcc) or want to use compiler options that are better optimized for your processor. Binary distributions are compiled with options that should work on a variety of processors from the same processor family.
  • You want to use the latest sources from one of the BitKeeper repositories to have access to all current bugfixes. For example, if you have found a bug and reported it to the MySQL development team, the bugfix will be committed to the source repository and you can access it there. The bugfix will not appear in a release until a release actually is issued.
  • You want to read (or modify) the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, you should get a source distribution, because the source code is always the ultimate manual. Source distributions also contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2.3 How and When Updates Are Released

MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at MySQL AB and we want to share new developments with other MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that others seem to have a need for.

We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note of what our licensed users want to have, and we especially take note of what our extended email supported customers want and try to help them out.

No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release has something you really want. See section C MySQL Change History.

We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

  • Releases are issued within each release series. For each release, the last number in the version is one more than the previous release within the same series.
  • Production (stable) releases are meant to appear about 1-2 times a year, but if small bugs are found, a release with only bug fixes will be issued.
  • Working releases/bug fixes to old releases are meant to appear about every 4-8 weeks.
  • Binary distributions for some platforms are made by us for major releases. Other people may make binary distributions for other systems, but probably less frequently.
  • We usually make fixes available as soon as we have identified and corrected small or non-critical but annoying bugs. The fixes are available immediately from our public BitKeeper repositories, and will be included in the next release.
  • If by any chance a fatal bug is found in a release, we will make a new release as soon as possible. We would like other companies to do this, too.

2.1.2.4 Release Philosophy--No Known Bugs in Releases

We put a lot of time and effort into making our releases bug free. To our knowledge, we have not released a single MySQL version with any known ``fatal'' repeatable bugs. (A fatal bug is something that crashes MySQL under normal usage, produces incorrect answers for normal queries, or has a security problem.)

We have documented all open problems, bugs, and issues that are dependent on design decisions. See section 1.8.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL.

Our aim is to fix everything that is fixable without risk of making a stable MySQL version less stable. In certain cases, this means we can fix an issue in the development versions, but not in the stable (production) version. Naturally, we document such issues so that users are aware.

Here is a description of how our build process works:

  • We monitor bugs from our customer support list, the bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/, and the MySQL external mailing lists.
  • All reported bugs for live versions are entered into the bugs database.
  • When we fix a bug, we always try to make a test case for it and include it into our test system to ensure that the bug will never recur without being detected. (About 90% of all fixed bugs have a test case.)
  • We also create test cases for all new features we add to MySQL.
  • Before we start to build a new MySQL release, we ensure that all reported repeatable bugs for the MySQL version (3.23.x, 4.0.x, etc) are fixed. If something is impossible to fix (due to some internal design decision in MySQL) we document this in the manual. See section 1.8.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL.
  • We do a build on all platforms for which we support binaries (15+ platforms) and run our test suite and benchmark suite on all of them.
  • We will not publish a binary for a platform for which the test or benchmark suite fails. If it's a general error in the source, we fix this and do the build plus tests on all systems again, from scratch.
  • The build and test process takes 2-3 days). If we receive a report regarding a fatal bug during this process (for example, one that causes a core dump), we fix the problem and restart the build process.
  • After publishing the binaries on http://www.mysql.com/, we send out an announcement message to the mysql and announce mailing lists. See section 1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists. The announcement message contains a list of all changes to the release and any known problems with the release. (The ``known problems'' section in the release notes has only been needed in a handful of releases.)
  • To quickly give our users access to the latest MySQL features, we do a new MySQL release every 4-8 weeks. Source code snapshots are built daily and are available at http://downloads.mysql.com/snapshots.php.
  • If we, after the release is done, get any bug reports that there was (after all) anything critically wrong with the build on a specific platform, we will fix this at once and build a new 'a' release for that platform. Thanks to our large user base, problems are found quickly.
  • Our track record for making good releases is quite good. In the last 150 releases, we had to do a new build for less than 10 releases (in 3 of these cases, the bug was a faulty glibc library on one of our build machines that took us a long time to track down).

2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB

As a service, we at MySQL AB provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are compiled on systems at our site or on systems where supporters of MySQL kindly have given us access to their machines.

In addition to the binaries provided in platform-specific package formats (see section 2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution), we do offer binary distributions for a number of platforms in the form of of compressed tar files (.tar.gz).

These distributions are generated using the script Build-tools/Do-compile which compiles the source code and creates the binary tar.gz archive using scripts/make_binary_distribution.

These binaries are configured and built with the following compilers and options. This information can also be obtained by looking at the variables COMP_ENV_INFO and CONFIGURE_LINE inside the script bin/mysqlbug of every binary tar file distribution.

Binaries built on MySQL AB development systems:

Linux 2.4.xx x86 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium 2 with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS="-O2 -tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS=-tpp1 CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS=-tpp1 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx alpha with ccc (Compaq C V6.2-505 / Compaq C++ V6.3-006):
CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared --disable-shared
Linux 2.x.xx ppc with gcc 2.95.4:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
Linux 2.4.xx s390 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.xx x86_64 (AMD64) with gcc 3.2.1:
CXX=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 x86 with gcc 3.2.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC 64-bit with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with gcc 2.95.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with cc-5.0 (Sun Forte 5.0):
CC=cc-5.0 CXX=CC ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" CFLAGS="-Xa -xstrconst -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.2 ppc with gcc 3.2.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many " CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.3 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS ="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared --with-innodb
IBM AIX 5.1.0 ppc with gcc 3.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 5.2.0 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 10.20 pa-risc1.1 with gcc 3.1:
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce /include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-pthread --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.00 pa-risc with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DAportable CXXFLAGS=+DAportable ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 64bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 32bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DAportable" CXXFLAGS="+DAportable" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
HP-UX 11.22 ia64 64bit with aCC (HP aC++/ANSI C B3910B A.05.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DD64 +DSitanium2" CXXFLAGS="+DD64 +DSitanium2" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
Apple Mac OS X 10.2 powerpc with gcc 3.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=not-used --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 using LinuxThreads with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT -D_THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads" CXXFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT -D_THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-thread-libs="-DHAVE_GLIBC2_STYLE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R -D_THREAD_SAFE -I /usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads -L/usr/local/lib -llthread -llgcc_r" --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
QNX Neutrino 6.2.1 i386 with gcc 2.95.3qnx-nto 20010315:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared

The following binaries are built on third-party systems kindly provided to MySQL AB by other users. Please note that these are only provided as a courtesy. Since MySQL AB does not have full control over these systems, we can provide only limited support for the binaries built on these systems.

SCO Unix 3.2v5.0.6 i386 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium" LDFLAGS=-static CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
SCO OpenUnix 8.0.0 i386 with CC 3.2:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-O" CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
Compaq Tru64 OSF/1 V5.1 732 alpha with cc/cxx (Compaq C V6.3-029i / DIGITAL C++ V6.1-027):
CC="cc -pthread" CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all" CXX="cxx -pthread" CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -fast -inline speed -speculate all -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc" --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
SGI Irix 6.5 IP32 with gcc 3.0.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
FreeBSD/sparc64 5.0 with gcc 3.2.1:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb

The following compile options have been used for binary packages MySQL AB used to provide in the past. These binaries are no longer being updated, but the compile options are listed here for reference purposes.

Linux 2.2.xx SPARC with egcs 1.1.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared
Linux 2.2.x with x686 with gcc 2.95.2:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.5.1 (and above) sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a or 2.90.27 or gcc 2.95.2 and newer:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
AIX 2 4 with gcc 2.7.2.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex

Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the preceding configurations listed can always mail them to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

RPM distributions prior to MySQL Version 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with Version 3.22, the RPM distributions are generated by us at MySQL AB.

If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or --with-debug=full to the preceding configure commands and remove any -fomit-frame-pointer options.

For the Windows distribution, please see section 2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows.

2.1.3 How to Get MySQL

Check the MySQL homepage (http://www.mysql.com/) for information about the current version and for downloading instructions.

Our main mirror is located at http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/mysql/.

For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL Web/download mirrors, see http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.php. There you will also find information about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out of date mirror.

2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure it is intact and has not been tampered with.

MySQL AB offers three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums
  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard
  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

2.1.5 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded the package, you should make sure that the MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify with the following command, where package_name is the name of the package you downloaded:

shell> md5sum package_name

Note, that not all operating systems support the md5sum command--on some it is simply called md5, others do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ as well. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can also use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A DOS/Windows implementation of the md5 command is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/.

Example:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
60f5fe969d61c8f82e4f7f62657e1f06
                mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

2.1.6 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.10 (February 2003), MySQL AB started signing downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the very well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions already ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about OpenPGP, see http://www.openpgp.org/.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of MySQL AB's public GPG build key build@mysql.com. You can either cut and paste it directly from here, or obtain it from http://www.keyserver.net/.

Key ID:
pub  1024D/5072E1F5 2003-02-03
     MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>
Fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

Public Key (ASCII-armored):

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux)
Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org

mQGiBD4+owwRBAC14GIfUfCyEDSIePvEW3SAFUdJBtoQHH/nJKZyQT7h9bPlUWC3
RODjQReyCITRrdwyrKUGku2FmeVGwn2u2WmDMNABLnpprWPkBdCk96+OmSLN9brZ
fw2vOUgCmYv2hW0hyDHuvYlQA/BThQoADgj8AW6/0Lo7V1W9/8VuHP0gQwCgvzV3
BqOxRznNCRCRxAuAuVztHRcEAJooQK1+iSiunZMYD1WufeXfshc57S/+yeJkegNW
hxwR9pRWVArNYJdDRT+rf2RUe3vpquKNQU/hnEIUHJRQqYHo8gTxvxXNQc7fJYLV
K2HtkrPbP72vwsEKMYhhr0eKCbtLGfls9krjJ6sBgACyP/Vb7hiPwxh6rDZ7ITnE
kYpXBACmWpP8NJTkamEnPCia2ZoOHODANwpUkP43I7jsDmgtobZX9qnrAXw+uNDI
QJEXM6FSbi0LLtZciNlYsafwAPEOMDKpMqAK6IyisNtPvaLd8lH0bPAnWqcyefep
rv0sxxqUEMcM3o7wwgfN83POkDasDbs3pjwPhxvhz6//62zQJ7Q7TXlTUUwgUGFj
a2FnZSBzaWduaW5nIGtleSAod3d3Lm15c3FsLmNvbSkgPGJ1aWxkQG15c3FsLmNv
bT6IXQQTEQIAHQUCPj6jDAUJCWYBgAULBwoDBAMVAwIDFgIBAheAAAoJEIxxjTtQ
cuH1cY4AnilUwTXn8MatQOiG0a/bPxrvK/gCAJ4oinSNZRYTnblChwFaazt7PF3q
zIhMBBMRAgAMBQI+PqPRBYMJZgC7AAoJEElQ4SqycpHyJOEAn1mxHijft00bKXvu
cSo/pECUmppiAJ41M9MRVj5VcdH/KN/KjRtW6tHFPYhMBBMRAgAMBQI+QoIDBYMJ
YiKJAAoJELb1zU3GuiQ/lpEAoIhpp6BozKI8p6eaabzF5MlJH58pAKCu/ROofK8J
Eg2aLos+5zEYrB/LsrkCDQQ+PqMdEAgA7+GJfxbMdY4wslPnjH9rF4N2qfWsEN/l
xaZoJYc3a6M02WCnHl6ahT2/tBK2w1QI4YFteR47gCvtgb6O1JHffOo2HfLmRDRi
Rjd1DTCHqeyX7CHhcghj/dNRlW2Z0l5QFEcmV9U0Vhp3aFfWC4Ujfs3LU+hkAWzE
7zaD5cH9J7yv/6xuZVw411x0h4UqsTcWMu0iM1BzELqX1DY7LwoPEb/O9Rkbf4fm
Le11EzIaCa4PqARXQZc4dhSinMt6K3X4BrRsKTfozBu74F47D8Ilbf5vSYHbuE5p
/1oIDznkg/p8kW+3FxuWrycciqFTcNz215yyX39LXFnlLzKUb/F5GwADBQf+Lwqq
a8CGrRfsOAJxim63CHfty5mUc5rUSnTslGYEIOCR1BeQauyPZbPDsDD9MZ1ZaSaf
anFvwFG6Llx9xkU7tzq+vKLoWkm4u5xf3vn55VjnSd1aQ9eQnUcXiL4cnBGoTbOW
I39EcyzgslzBdC++MPjcQTcA7p6JUVsP6oAB3FQWg54tuUo0Ec8bsM8b3Ev42Lmu
QT5NdKHGwHsXTPtl0klk4bQk4OajHsiy1BMahpT27jWjJlMiJc+IWJ0mghkKHt92
6s/ymfdf5HkdQ1cyvsz5tryVI3Fx78XeSYfQvuuwqp2H139pXGEkg0n6KdUOetdZ
Whe70YGNPw1yjWJT1IhMBBgRAgAMBQI+PqMdBQkJZgGAAAoJEIxxjTtQcuH17p4A
n3r1QpVC9yhnW2cSAjq+kr72GX0eAJ4295kl6NxYEuFApmr1+0uUq/SlsQ==
=YJkx
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

You can import this key into your personal public GPG keyring by using gpg --import. See the GPG documentation for more info on how to work with public keys.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an `.asc' extension. For example:

Distribution file mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature file mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

Example:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Warning: using insecure memory!
gpg: Signature made Mon 03 Feb 2003 08:50:39 PM MET using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from
     "MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>"

The ``Good signature'' message indicates that everything is all right.

2.1.7 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages actually have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK

Note: If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5) (even though you have imported it into your own GPG public keyring), you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (and GPG itself), but rather maintains its own keyring (because it's a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file). To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, use rpm --import.

For example, if you have the public key stored in a file named `mysql_pubkey.asc', import it using this command:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site. If you repeatedly cannot successfully verify the integrity of the package, please notify us about such incidents including the full package name and the download site you have been using at webmaster@mysql.com or build@mysql.com. Do not report downloading problems using the bug-reporting system.

2.1.8 Installation Layouts

This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary and source distributions.

On Windows, the default installation directory is `C:\mysql', which has the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`Docs' Documentation
`examples' Example programs and scripts
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' Utility scripts
`share' Error message files

Installations created from Linux RPM distributions result in files under the following system directories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`/usr/bin' Client programs
`/usr/sbin' mysqld server
`/var/lib/mysql' Log files, databases
`/usr/share/doc/packages' Documentation
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' mysql_install_db
`/usr/share/mysql' Error message and character set files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks

On Unix, a tar file binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose (typically `/usr/local/mysql') and creates the following directories in that location:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`docs' Documentation, ChangeLog
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' mysql_install_db
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks

A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under `/usr/local', in the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and scripts
`include/mysql' Include (header) files
`info' Documentation in Info format
`lib/mysql' Libraries
`libexec' The mysqld server
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks and crash-me test
`var' Databases and log files

Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a binary installation in the following ways:

  • The mysqld server is installed in the `libexec' directory rather than in the `bin' directory.
  • The data directory is `var' rather than `data'.
  • mysql_install_db is installed in the `bin' directory rather than in the `scripts' directory.
  • The header file and library directories are `include/mysql' and `lib/mysql' rather than `include' and `lib'.

You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing the `scripts/make_binary_distribution' script from the top directory of the source distribution.

2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution

This section covers the installation of MySQL on platforms where we offer packages using the native packaging format of the respective platform. (This is also known as performing a ``binary install.'') However, binary distributions of MySQL are available for many other platforms as well. See section 2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-like Systems for generic installation instructions for these packages that apply to all platforms.

See section 2.1 General Installation Issues for more information on what other binary distributions are available and how to obtain them.

2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows

The installation process for MySQL on Windows has the following steps:

  1. Install the distribution.
  2. Set up an option file if necessary.
  3. Select the server you want to use.
  4. Start the server.
  5. Assign passwords to the initial MySQL accounts.

MySQL for Windows is available in two distribution formats:

  • The binary distribution contains a setup program that installs everything you need so that you can start the server immediately.
  • The source distribution contains all the code and support files for building the executables using the VC++ 6.0 compiler.

Generally speaking, you should use the binary distribution. It's simpler, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running.

This section describes how to install MySQL on Windows using a binary distribution. To install using a source distribution, see section 2.3.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows.

2.2.1.1 Windows System Requirements

To run MySQL on Windows, you need the following:

  • A 32-bit Windows operating system such as 9x, Me, NT, 2000, or XP. The NT family (Windows NT, 2000, and XP) permits you to run the MySQL server as a service. See section 2.2.1.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service.
  • TCP/IP protocol support.
  • A copy of the MySQL binary distribution for Windows, which can be downloaded from http://www.mysql.com/downloads/. Note: The distribution files are supplied with a zipped format and we recommend the use of an adequate FTP client with resume feature to avoid corruption of files during the download process.
  • A ZIP program to unpack the distribution file.
  • Enough space on the hard drive to unpack, install, and create the databases in accordance with your requirements.
  • If you plan to connect to the MySQL server via ODBC, you also need the MyODBC driver. See section 20.3 MySQL ODBC Support.
  • If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer filesystem. Don't forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See section 14.2.5 CREATE TABLE Syntax.

2.2.1.2 Installing a Windows Binary Distribution

To install MySQL on Windows using a binary distribution, follow this procedure:

  1. If you are working on a Windows NT, 2000, or XP machine, make sure you have logged in as a user with administrator privileges.
  2. If you are doing an upgrade of an earlier MySQL installation, it is necessary to stop the current server. On Windows NT, 2000, or XP machines, if you are running the server as a Windows service, stop it as follows from the command prompt:
    C:\> NET STOP MySQL
    
    If you plan to use a different server after the upgrade (for example, if you want to run mysqld-max rather than mysqld), remove the existing service:
    C:\mysql\bin> mysqld --remove
    
    You can reinstall the service to use the proper server after upgrading. If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, stop it like this:
    C:\mysql\bin> mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  3. Exit the WinMySQLAdmin program if it is running.
  4. Unzip the distribution file to a temporary directory.
  5. Run the setup.exe program to begin the installation process. If you want to install MySQL into a location other than the default directory (`C:\mysql'), use the Browse button to specify your preferred directory. If you do not install MySQL into the default location, you will need to specify the location whenever you start the server. The easiest way to do this is to use an option file, as described in section 2.2.1.3 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment.
  6. Finish the install process.

Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain any installer program. A 4.1 distribution is a ZIP file that you just unzip in the location where you want to install MySQL. For example, to install `mysql-4.1.1-alpha-win.zip' as `C:\mysql', unzip the distribution file on the C: drive, then rename the resulting `mysql-4.1.1-alpha' directory to `mysql'.

If you are upgrading to MySQL 4.1 from an earlier version, you will want to preserve your existing `data' directory that contains the grant tables in the mysql database and your own databases. Before installing 4.1, stop the server if it is running, and save your `data' directory to another location. Then either rename the existing `C:\mysql' directory or remove it. Install 4.1 as described in the preceding paragraph, and then replace its `data' directory with your old `data' directory. Start the new server and update the grant tables. This will avoid loss of your current databases. See section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

2.2.1.3 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that will be used every time the server starts, you will find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is true particularly under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations (`C:\mysql' and `C:\mysql\data').
  • You need to tune the server settings. For example, to use the InnoDB transactional tables in MySQL version 3.23, you must manually create two new directories to hold the InnoDB data and log files--such as, `C:\ibdata' and `C:\iblogs'. You will also need to add some extra lines to the option file, as described in section 16.4 InnoDB Configuration. (As of MySQL 4.0, InnoDB creates its datafiles and log files in the data directory by default. This means you need not configure InnoDB explicitly. You may still do so if you wish, and an option file will be useful in this case, too.)

On Windows, the MySQL installer places the data directory directly under the directory where you install MySQL. If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the `data' directory to the new location. For example, by default, the installer places MySQL in `C:\mysql' and the data directory in `C:\mysql\data'. If you want to use a data directory of `E:\mydata', you must do two things:

  • Move the data directory from `C:\mysql\data' to `E:\mydata'.
  • Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for options in two files: The `my.ini' file in the Windows directory, and the `C:\my.cnf' file. The Windows directory typically is named something like `C:\WINDOWS' or `C:\WinNT'. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options first in the `my.ini' file, then in the `my.cnf' file. However, to avoid confusion, it's best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where the C: drive isn't the boot drive, your only option is to use the `my.ini' file. Whichever one you use, it must be a plain text file.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as the Notepad program. For example, if MySQL is installed at `D:\mysql' and the data directory is located as `D:\mydata\data', you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=D:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:/mydata/data

Note that Windows pathnames are specified in option files using forward slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them.

Another way to manage an option file is to use the WinMySQLAdmin tool. You can find WinMySQLAdmin in the `bin' directory of your MySQL installation, as well as a help file containing instructions for using it. WinMySQLAdmin has the capability of editing your option file, but note these points:

  • WinMySQLAdmin uses only the `my.ini' file.
  • If WinMySQLAdmin finds a `C:\my.cnf' file, it will in fact rename it to `C:\my_cnf.bak' to disable it.

Now you are ready to test starting the server.

2.2.1.4 Selecting a Windows Server

Starting with MySQL 3.23.38, the Windows distribution includes both the normal and the MySQL-Max server binaries. Here is a list of the different MySQL servers from which you can choose:

Binary Description
mysqld Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-opt Optimized binary. From version 4.0 on, InnoDB is enabled. Before 4.0, this server includes no transactional table support.
mysqld-nt Optimized binary for NT, 2000, and XP with support for named pipes.
mysqld-max Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-max-nt Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. The mysqld-nt and mysql-max-nt servers support named pipes on NT, 2000, and XP. However, the default is to use TCP/IP regardless of the platform. (Named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.)

Named pipe use is subject to these conditions:

  • Starting from MySQL 3.23.50, named pipes are enabled only if you start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is now necessary to use this option explicitly because some users have experienced problems shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes are used.
  • Named pipe connections are allowed only by the mysqld-nt or mysqld-max-nt servers, and only if the server is run on a version of Windows that supports named pipes (NT, 2000, XP).
  • These servers can be run on Windows 98 or Me, but only if TCP/IP is installed; named pipe connections cannot be used.
  • On Windows 95, these servers cannot be used.

2.2.1.5 Starting the Server for the First Time

On Windows 95, 98, or Me, MySQL clients always connect to the server using TCP/IP. (This will allow any machine on your network to connect to your MySQL server.) Because of this, you must make sure that TCP/IP support is installed on your machine before starting MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.

Note that if you are using an old Windows 95 release (for example, OSR2), it's likely that you have an old Winsock package; MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest Winsock from http://www.microsoft.com/. Windows 98 has the new Winsock 2 library, so it is unnecessary to update the library.

On NT-based systems such as Windows NT, 2000, or XP, clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named pipe connections.

For information about which server binary to run, see section 2.2.1.3 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment.

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for particular versions of Windows.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of `C:\mysql'. Adjust the pathnames shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (a ``DOS window''). This way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages will make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

Make sure you are in the directory where the server is located, then enter this command:

C:\mysql\bin> mysqld --console

For servers that include InnoDB support, you should see the following messages as the server starts:

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '4.0.14-log'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server will continue to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory. The error log is the file with the `.err' extension.

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

2.2.1.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (a ``DOS'' window) and enter this command:

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld

On non-NT versions of Windows, this will start mysqld in the background. That is, after the server starts, you should see another command prompt. If you start the server this way on Windows NT, 2000, or XP, the server will run in the foreground and no command prompt will appear until the server exits. Because of this, you should open another console window to run client programs while the server is running.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Please note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the `C:\mysql\data' directory. It is the file with a suffix of `.err'. You can also try to start the server as mysqld --console; in this case, you may get some useful information on the screen that may help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with --standalone --debug. In this case mysqld will write a log file `C:\mysqld.trace' that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See section D.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

Use mysqld --help to display all the options that mysqld understands!

2.2.1.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On the NT family (Windows NT, 2000, or XP), the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service. Then Windows starts and stops the MySQL server automatically when Windows starts and stops. A server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000). It is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from this command line. This prevents some odd errors.

To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP on Windows NT 4, you must install service pack 3 (or newer)!

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Please note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Now install the server as a service:

shell> mysqld --install

If you have problems installing mysqld as a service using just the server name, try installing it using its full pathname:

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install

As of MySQL 4.0.2, you can specify a specific service name after the --install option. As of MySQL 4.0.3, you can in addition specify a --defaults-file option after the service name to indicate where the server should obtain options when it starts. The rules that determine the service name and option files the server uses are as follows:

  • If you specify no service name, the server uses the default service name of MySQL and the server reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.
  • If you specify a service name after the --install option, the server ignores the [mysqld] option group and instead reads options from the group that has the same name as the service. The server reads options from the standard option files.
  • If you specify a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server ignores the standard option files and reads options only from the [mysqld] group of the named file.

Note: Prior to MySQL 4.0.17, a server installed as a Windows service has problems starting if its pathname or the service name contains spaces. For this reason, avoid installing MySQL in a directory such as `C:\Program Files' or using a service name containing spaces.

In the usual case that you install the server with --install but no service name, the server is installed with a service name of MySQL.

As a more complex example, consider the following command (which should be entered on a single line):

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install mysql
           --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, a service name is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysql] group from the standard option files. (This would be a bad idea, because that option group is for use by the mysql client program.) However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options only from the named file, and only from the [mysqld] option group.

You can also specify options as ``Start parameters'' in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Once a MySQL server is installed as a service, Windows will start the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using the command NET START MySQL. The NET command is not case sensitive.

Please note that when run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the `C:\mysql\data' directory. It is the file with a suffix of `.err'.

When mysqld is running as a service, it can be stopped by using the Services utility, the command NET STOP MySQL, or the command mysqladmin shutdown. If the service is running when Windows shuts down, Windows will stop the server automatically.

From MySQL version 3.23.44, you have the choice of installing the server as a Manual service if you don't wish the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

shell> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install-manual

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running. Then use the --remove option to remove it:

shell> mysqld --remove

For MySQL versions older than 3.23.49, one problem with automatic MySQL service shutdown is that Windows waited only for a few seconds for the shutdown to complete, then killed the database server process if the time limit was exceeded. This had the potential to cause problems. (For example, the InnoDB storage engine had to perform crash recovery at the next startup.) Starting from MySQL version 3.23.49, Windows waits longer for the MySQL server shutdown to complete. If you notice this still is not enough for your installation, it is safest not to run the MySQL server as a service. Instead, start it from the command-line prompt, and stop it with mysqladmin shutdown.

This change to tell Windows to wait longer when stopping the MySQL server works for Windows 2000 and XP. It does not work for Windows NT, where Windows waits only 20 seconds for a service to shut down, and after that kills the service process. You can increase this default by opening the Registry Editor `\winnt\system32\regedt32.exe' and editing the value of WaitToKillServiceTimeout at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control in the Registry tree. Specify the new larger value in milliseconds. For example, the value 120000 tells Windows NT to wait up to 120 seconds.

If you don't want to start mysqld as a service, you can start it from the command line the same way as for versions of Windows that are not based on NT. For instructions, see section 2.2.1.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line.

2.2.1.8 Running MySQL Client Programs on Windows

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs on Windows 9x/Me, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP numbers in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables.

You can force a MySQL client to use a named pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe option or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe. In MySQL 4.1, you should use the --protocol=PIPE option.

There are two versions of the MySQL command-line tool:

Binary Description
mysql Compiled on native Windows, offering limited text editing capabilities.
mysqlc Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which offers readline editing.

If you want to use mysqlc, you must have a copy of the `cygwinb19.dll' library installed somewhere that mysqlc can find it. Current distributions of MySQL include this library in the same directory as mysqlc (the `bin' directory under the base directory of your MySQL installation). If your distribution does not have the cygwinb19.dll library in the `bin' directory, look for it in the lib directory and copy it to your Windows system directory (`\Windows\system' or similar place).

2.2.1.9 MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix

MySQL for Windows has by now proven itself to be very stable. The Windows version of MySQL has the same features as the corresponding Unix version, with the following exceptions:

Windows 95 and threads
Windows 95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation. Each connection in MySQL creates a new thread, so you shouldn't run mysqld for an extended time on Windows 95 if your server handles many connections! Other versions of Windows don't suffer from this bug.
Limited number of ports
Windows systems have about 4,000 ports available for client connections, and after a connection on a port closes, it takes two to four minutes before the port can be reused. In situations where clients connect to and disconnect from the server at a high rate, it is possible for all available ports to be used up before closed ports become available again. If this happens, the MySQL server will appear to have become unresponsive even though it is running. Note that ports may be used by other applications running on the machine as well, in which case the number of ports available to MySQL is lower.
Concurrent reads
MySQL depends on the pread() and pwrite() calls to be able to mix INSERT and SELECT. Currently we use mutexes to emulate pread()/pwrite(). We will, in the long run, replace the file level interface with a virtual interface so that we can use the readfile()/writefile() interface on NT, 2000, and XP to get more speed. The current implementation limits the number of open files MySQL can use to 1024, which means that you will not be able to run as many concurrent threads on NT, 2000, and XP as on Unix.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection, which has the following implications:
  • A connection will not be disconnected automatically after eight hours, as happens with the Unix version of MySQL.
  • If a connection hangs, it's impossible to break it without killing MySQL.
  • mysqladmin kill will not work on a sleeping connection.
  • mysqladmin shutdown can't abort as long as there are sleeping connections.
We plan to fix this problem when our Windows developers have figured out a nice workaround.
DROP DATABASE
You can't drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the Task Manager
You can't kill MySQL from the Task Manager or with the shutdown utility in Windows 95. You must take it down with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are not case sensitive on Windows, so MySQL database and table names are also not case sensitive on Windows. The only restriction is that database and table names must be specified using the same case throughout a given statement. See section 10.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity.
The `\' pathname separator character
Pathname components in Windows 95 are separated by the `\' character, which is also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, use Unix style filenames with `/' characters:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt' INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt' FROM skr;
Alternatively, you must double the `\' character:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE 'C:\\tmp\\skr.txt' INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:\\tmp\\skr.txt' FROM skr;
Problems with pipes.
Pipes don't work reliably from the Windows command-line prompt. If the pipe includes the character ^Z / CHAR(24), Windows will think it has encountered end-of-file and abort the program. This is mainly a problem when you try to apply a binary log as follows:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-name | mysql --user=root
If you get a problem applying the log and suspect it's because of an ^Z / CHAR(24) character you can use the following workaround:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-file --result-file=/tmp/bin.sql
C:\> mysql --user=root --execute "source /tmp/bin.sql"
The latter command also can be used to reliably read in any SQL file that may contain binary data.
Can't open named pipe error
If you use a MySQL Version 3.22 server on NT with the newest MySQL client programs, you will get the following error:
error 2017: can't open named pipe to host: . pipe...
This happens because the release version of MySQL uses named pipes on NT by default. You can avoid this error by using the --host=localhost option to the new MySQL clients or create an option file `C:\my.cnf' that contains the following information:
[client]
host = localhost
Starting from 3.23.50, named pipes are enabled only if mysqld-nt or mysqld-max-nt is started with --enable-named-pipe.
Access denied for user error
If you attempt to run a MySQL client program to connect to a server running on the same machine, but get the error Access denied for user: 'some-user@unknown' to database 'mysql', this means that MySQL can't resolve your hostname properly. To fix this, you should create a file `\windows\hosts' with the following information:
127.0.0.1       localhost
ALTER TABLE
While you are executing an ALTER TABLE statement, the table is locked from being used by other threads. This has to do with the fact that on Windows, you can't delete a file that is in use by another threads. In the future, we may find some way to work around this problem.
DROP TABLE
DROP TABLE on a table that is in use by a MERGE table will not work on Windows because the MERGE handler does the table mapping hidden from the upper layer of MySQL. Because Windows doesn't allow you to drop files that are open, you first must flush all MERGE tables (with FLUSH TABLES) or drop the MERGE table before dropping the table. We will fix this at the same time we introduce views.
DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY
The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options for CREATE TABLE are ignored on Windows, because Windows doesn't support symbolic links. These options also are ignored on systems that have a non-functional realpath() call.

Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us improve MySQL on Windows:

  • Add some nice start and shutdown icons to the MySQL installation.
  • It would be really nice to be able to kill mysqld from the Task Manager. For the moment, you must use mysqladmin shutdown.
  • Port readline to Windows for use in the mysql command-line tool.
  • GUI versions of the standard MySQL clients (mysql, mysqlshow, mysqladmin, and mysqldump) would be nice.
  • It would be nice if the socket read and write functions in `net.c' were interruptible. This would make it possible to kill open threads with mysqladmin kill on Windows.
  • Add macros to use the faster thread-safe increment/decrement methods provided by Windows.

2.2.2 Installing MySQL on Linux

The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using the RPM packages. The MySQL RPMs are currently built on a SuSE Linux 7.3 system but should work on most versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc.

Note: RPM distributions of MySQL often are provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ in features and capabilities from those built by MySQL AB, and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

If you have problems with an RPM file (for example, if you receive the error ``Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up''), see section 2.6.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes.

In most cases, you only need to install the MySQL-server and MySQL-client packages to get a functional MySQL installation. The other packages are not required for a standard installation. If you want to run a MySQL-Max server that has additional capabilities, you should install the MySQL-Max RPM. However, you should do so only after installing the MySQL-server RPM. See section 5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server.

If you get a dependency failure when trying to install the MySQL 4.0 packages (for example, ``error: removing these packages would break dependencies: libmysqlclient.so.10 is needed by ...''), you should also install the package MySQL-shared-compat, which includes both the shared libraries for backward compatibility (libmysqlclient.so.12 for MySQL 4.0 and libmysqlclient.so.10 for MySQL 3.23).

Many Linux distributions still ship with MySQL 3.23 and they usually link applications dynamically to save disk space. If these shared libraries are in a separate package (for example, MySQL-shared), it is sufficient to simply leave this package installed and just upgrade the MySQL server and client packages (which are statically linked and do not depend on the shared libraries). For distributions that include the shared libraries in the same package as the MySQL server (for example, Red Hat Linux), you could either install our 3.23 MySQL-shared RPM, or use the MySQL-shared-compat package instead.

The following RPM packages are available:

  • MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm The MySQL server. You will need this unless you only want to connect to a MySQL server running on another machine. Please note: Server RPM files were called MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm before MySQL 4.0.10. That is, they did not have -server in the name.
  • MySQL-Max-VERSION.i386.rpm The MySQL-Max server. This server has additional capabilities that the one provided in the MySQL-server RPM does not. You must install the MySQL-server RPM first, because the MySQL-Max RPM depends on it.
  • MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.
  • MySQL-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm Tests and benchmarks. Requires Perl and the DBD::mysql module.
  • MySQL-devel-VERSION.i386.rpm The libraries and include files that are needed if you want to compile other MySQL clients, such as the Perl modules.
  • MySQL-shared-VERSION.i386.rpm This package contains the shared libraries (libmysqlclient.so*) that certain languages and applications need to dynamically load and use MySQL.
  • MySQL-shared-compat-VERSION.i386.rpm This package includes the shared libraries for both MySQL 3.23 and MySQL 4.0. Install this package instead of MySQL-shared, if you have applications installed that are dynamically linked against MySQL 3.23 but you want to upgrade to MySQL 4.0 without breaking the library dependencies. This package is available since MySQL 4.0.13.
  • MySQL-embedded-VERSION.i386.rpm The embedded MySQL server library (from MySQL 4.0).
  • MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm This contains the source code for all of the previous packages. It can also be used to rebuild the RPMs on other architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server RPM), run:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

To install just the client package, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of packages before installing them. If you would like to learn more about this feature please see section 2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG.

The server RPM places data under the `/var/lib/mysql' directory. The RPM also creates the appropriate entries in `/etc/init.d/' to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation and have made changes to its startup script, you may want to make a copy of the script so you don't lose it when you install a newer RPM.) See section 2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically for more information on how MySQL can be started automatically on system startup.

If you want to install the MySQL RPM on older Linux distributions that do not support initialization scripts in `/etc/init.d' (directly or via a symlink), you should create a symbolic link that points to the location where your initialization scripts actually are installed. For example, if that location is `/etc/rc.d/init.d', use these commands before installing the RPM to create `/etc/init.d' as a symbolic link that points there:

shell> cd /etc; ln -s rc.d/init.d .

However, all current major Linux distributions should already support the new directory layout that uses `/etc/init.d', because it is required for LSB (Linux Standard Base) compliance.

If the RPM files that you install include MySQL-server, the mysqld server should be up and running after installation. You should now be able to start using MySQL. See section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation chapter. See section 2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-like Systems.

2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.11, you can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.2 (``Jaguar'') using a Mac OS X binary package in PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution. Please note that older versions of Mac OS X (for example, 10.1.x) are not supported by this package.

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file, that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note: Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to shut down all running MySQL server instances by either using the MySQL Manager Application (on Mac OS X Server) or via mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To actually install the MySQL PKG file, double click on the package icon. This launches the Mac OS X Package Installer, which will guide you through the installation of MySQL.

Due to a bug in the Mac OS X package installer, you may sometimes see the error message You cannot install this software on this disk. (null) in the destination disk selection dialogue. If this error occurs, simply click the Go Back button once to return to the previous screen. Then click Continue to advance to the destination disk selection again, and you should be able to choose the destination disk correctly. We have reported this bug to Apple and they are investigating this problem.

The Mac OS X PKG of MySQL will install itself into `/usr/local/mysql-<version>' and will also install a symbolic link `/usr/local/mysql', pointing to the new location. If a directory named `/usr/local/mysql' already exists, it will be renamed to `/usr/local/mysql.bak' first. Additionally, it will install the grant tables in the mysql database by executing mysql_install_db after the installation.

The installation layout is similar to the one of the binary distribution; all MySQL binaries are located in the directory `/usr/local/mysql/bin'. The MySQL socket file is created as `/tmp/mysql.sock' by default. See section 2.1.8 Installation Layouts.

MySQL installation requires a Mac OS X user account named mysql (a user account with this name should exist by default on Mac OS X 10.2 and up).

If you are running Mac OS X Server, you already have a version of MySQL installed. The versions of MySQL that ship with Mac OS X Server versions are shown in the following table:

Mac OS X Server Version MySQL Version
10.2-10.2.2 3.23.51
10.2.3-10.2.6 3.23.53
10.3 4.0.14
10.3.2 4.0.16

This manual section covers the installation of the official MySQL Mac OS X PKG only. Make sure to read Apple's help about installing MySQL (Run the ``Help View'' application, select ``Mac OS X Server'' help, and do a search for ``MySQL'' and read the item entitled ``Installing MySQL'').

For pre-installed versions of MySQL on Mac OS X Server, note especially that you should start mysqld with safe_mysqld instead of mysqld_safe if MySQL is older than version 4.0.

If you previously used Marc Liyanage's MySQL packages for Mac OS X from http://www.entropy.ch, you can simply follow the update instructions for packages using the binary installation layout as given on his pages.

If you are upgrading from Marc's 3.23.xx versions or from the Mac OS X Server version of MySQL to the official MySQL PKG, you also need to convert the existing MySQL privilege tables to the current format, because some new security privileges have been added. See section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

If you would like to automatically start up MySQL during system startup, you also need to install the MySQL Startup Item. Starting with MySQL 4.0.15, it is part of the Mac OS X installation disk images as a separate installation package. Simply double-click the MySQLStartupItem.pkg icon and follow the instructions to install it.

Note that the Startup Item need be installed only once! There is no need to install it each time you upgrade the MySQL package later.

The Startup Item will be installed into `/Library/StartupItems/MySQL'. It adds a variable MYSQLCOM=-YES- to the system configuration file `/etc/hostconfig'. If you would like to disable the automatic startup of MySQL, simply change this variable to MYSQLCOM=-NO-.

On Mac OS X Server, the default MySQL installation uses the variable MYSQL in `/etc/hostconfig'. The MySQL AB Startup Item installer disables this variable by setting it to MYSQL=-NO-. This avoids boot time conflicts with the MYSQLCOM variable used by the MySQL AB Startup Item. However, it does not shut down an already running MySQL server.

After the installation, you can start up MySQL by running the following commands in a terminal window. Please note that you must have administrator privileges to perform this task.

If you have installed the Startup Item:

shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQL/MySQL start
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)

If you don't use the Startup Item, enter the following command sequence:

shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> sudo ./bin/mysqld_safe
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-Z)
shell> bg
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)

You should now be able to connect to the MySQL server, for example, by running `/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'.

If you are installing MySQL for the first time, please remember to set a password for the MySQL root user!

This is done with the following two commands:

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password "newpwd"
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h `hostname` password "newpwd"

Please make sure that the hostname command in the second line is enclosed by backtick characters (`), so the shell can replace it with the output of the command (which is the hostname of your system)!

You might want to also add aliases to your shell's resource file to access mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for tcsh is:

alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

For bash, use:

alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. For example, add the following line to your `$HOME/.tcshrc' file if your shell is tcsh:

setenv PATH ${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin

If no `.tcshrc' file exists in your home directory, create it with a text editor.

If you are upgrading an existing installation, please note that installing a new MySQL PKG does not remove the directory of an older installation. Unfortunately, the Mac OS X Installer does not yet offer the functionality required to properly upgrade previously installed packages.

To use your existing databases with the new installation, you'll need to copy the contents of the old data directory to the new data directory. Make sure neither the old server nor the new one is running when you do this. After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in `/Library/Receipts/mysql-<version>.pkg'.

2.2.4 Installing MySQL on NetWare

Porting MySQL to NetWare was an effort spearheaded by Novell. Novell customers will be pleased to note that NetWare 6.5 will ship with bundled MySQL binaries, complete with an automatic commercial use license for all servers running that version of NetWare.

As of version 4.0.11, the MySQL server is available for Novell NetWare in binary package form. MySQL for NetWare is compiled using a combination of Metrowerks CodeWarrior for NetWare and special cross-compilation versions of the GNU autotools.

In order to host MySQL, the NetWare server must meet these requirements:

  • NetWare version 6.5, or NetWare 6.0 with Support Pack 3 installed (You can obtain this at http://support.novell.com/filefinder/13659/index.php).
  • The system must meet Novell's minimum requirements to run the respective version of NetWare.
  • MySQL data, as well as the binaries themselves, must be installed on an NSS volume; traditional volumes are not supported.

The binary package for NetWare can be obtained at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/.

To install MySQL for NetWare, use the following procedure:

  1. If you are upgrading from a prior installation, stop the MySQL server. This is done from the server console, using the following command:
    SERVER:  mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  2. Log on to the target server from a client machine with access to the location where you will install MySQL.
  3. Extract the binary package Zip file onto the server. Be sure to allow the paths in the Zip file to be used. It is safe to simply extract the file to `SYS:\'. If you are upgrading from a prior installation, you may need to copy the data directory (for example, `SYS:MYSQL\DATA') now, as well as `my.cnf' if you have customized it. You can then delete the old copy of MySQL.
  4. You may wish to rename the directory to something more consistent and easy to use. We recommend using `SYS:MYSQL'; examples in this manual use this name to refer to the installation directory in general.
  5. At the server console, add a search path for the directory containing the MySQL NLMs. For example:
    SERVER:  SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    
  6. Initialize the data directory and the grant tables, if needed, by executing mysql_install_db at the server console.
  7. Start the MySQL server using mysqld_safe at the server console.
  8. To finish the installation, you should also add the following commands to autoexec.ncf. For example, if your MySQL installation is in `SYS:MYSQL' and you want MySQL to start automatically, you could add these lines:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE
    
    If you are running MySQL on NetWare 6.0, we strongly suggest that you use the --skip-external-locking option on the command line:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE --skip-external-locking
    
    It will also be neccesary to use CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE instead of myisamchk, because myisamchk makes use of external locking. External locking is known to have problems on NetWare 6.0; the problem has been eliminated in NetWare 6.5. mysqld_safe on NetWare provides a screen presence. When you unload (shut down) the mysqld_safe NLM, the screen does not by default go away. Instead, it prompts for user input:
    *<NLM has terminated; Press any key to close the screen>*
    
    If you want NetWare to close the screen automatically instead, use the --autoclose option to mysqld_safe. For example:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE --autoclose
    
    The behavior of mysqld_safe on NetWare is described further in section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script. If there was an existing installation of MySQL on the server, be sure to check for existing MySQL startup commands in autoexec.ncf, and edit or delete them as necessary.

2.2.5 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-like Systems

This section covers the installation of MySQL binary distributions that are provided for various platforms in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension). See section 2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB for a detailed list.

In addition to these generic packages, we also offer binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms. See section 2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution for more information on how to install these.

You need the following tools to install a MySQL tar file binary distribution:

  • GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
  • A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Some operating systems come with a pre-installed version of tar that is known to have problems. For example, Mac OS X tar and Sun tar are known to have problems with long filenames. On Mac OS X, you can use the pre-installed gnutar program. On other systems with a deficient tar, you should install GNU tar first.

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL mailing list. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root  .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the final command.

A more detailed description follows.

To install a binary distribution, follow these steps, then proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing, for post-installation setup and testing:

  1. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else instead of mysql.
  2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it. In the following example, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local' (The following instructions, therefore, assume you have permission to create files and directories in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
  3. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL. MySQL tar file binary distributions have names like `mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number (for example, 4.0.17), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-gnu-i586). For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.
  4. Change into the intended installation directory:
    shell> cd /usr/local
    
  5. Unpack the distribution, which will create the installation directory. Then create a symbolic link to that directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
    
    The tar command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION-OS'. The ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as `/usr/local/mysql'. With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can replace the first line with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
    shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
    
  6. Change into the installation directory:
    shell> cd mysql
    
    You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the `bin' and `scripts' subdirectories.
    `bin'
    This directory contains client programs and the server. You should add the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See section E Environment Variables.
    `scripts'
    This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access permissions.
  7. If you haven't installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
    If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option as shown. If you run the command as mysql, you can omit it. Note that for MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
  8. Change ownership of program binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the installation directory (`/usr/local/mysql'), the commands look like this:
    shell> chown -R root  .
    shell> chown -R mysql data
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  9. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.
  10. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see section 2.7 Perl Installation Notes.
  11. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some non-standard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the `bin/mysqlaccess' script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:
    $MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable
    
    Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, you will get a Broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the command.

Now proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

More information about mysqld_safe is given in section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

2.3 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution

Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see whether our binary is available for your platform and whether it will work for you. We put a lot of effort into making sure that our binaries are built with the best possible options.

You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:

  • GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.
  • A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Some tar implementations that come pre-installed with the operating system (for example, Sun tar) is known to have problems with long file names). In that case, you should install GNU tar first.
  • A working ANSI C++ compiler. gcc 2.95.2 or later, egcs 1.0.2 or later or egcs 2.91.66, SGI C++, and SunPro C++ are some of the compilers that are known to work. libg++ is not needed when using gcc. gcc 2.7.x has a bug that makes it impossible to compile some perfectly legal C++ files, such as `sql/sql_base.cc'. If you only have gcc 2.7.x, you must upgrade your gcc to be able to compile MySQL. gcc 2.8.1 is also known to have problems on some platforms, so it should be avoided if a new compiler exists for the platform. gcc 2.95.2 or later is recommended when compiling MySQL Version 3.23.x.
  • A good make program. GNU make is always recommended and is sometimes required. If you have problems, we recommend trying GNU make 3.75 or newer.

If you are using a recent version of gcc, recent enough to understand the -fno-exceptions option, it is very important that you use it. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-constructors and -fno-rtti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:


CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \
       -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
       --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
       --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

On most systems this will give you a fast and stable binary.

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL mailing list. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the `scripts' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

2.3.1 Quick Source Installation Overview

The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf -
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> bin/mysql_install_db
shell> chown -R root  .
shell> chown -R mysql var
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the final command.

If you start from a source RPM, do the following:

shell> rpm --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

This will make a binary RPM that you can install.

A more detailed description follows.

To install a source distribution, follow these steps, then proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing, for post-installation initialization and testing:

  1. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else instead of mysql.
  2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it.
  3. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL. MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number like 5.0.0-alpha.
  4. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION'. With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can use the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
    shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
    
  5. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd mysql-VERSION
    
    Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory. You cannot build it in a different directory.
  6. Configure the release and compile everything:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
    shell> make
    
    When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure --help for a list of options. section 2.3.2 Typical configure Options, discusses some of the more useful options. If configure fails and you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for assistance, please include any lines from `config.log' that you think can help solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure. Post the bug report using the mysqlbug script. See section 1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems. If the compile fails, see section 2.3.4 Dealing With Problems Compiling MySQL, for help with a number of common problems.
  7. Install the distribution:
    shell> make install
    
    If you want to set up an option file, use one of those present in the `support-files' directory as template. For example:
    shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
    
    You might need to run these commands as root. If you want to configure support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf file, remove the # character before the option lines that start with innodb_..., and modify the option values to be what you want. See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files and section 16.4 InnoDB Configuration.
  8. Change location into the installation directory:
    shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
    
  9. If you haven't installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
    shell> bin/mysql_install_db
    
    Note that for MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
  10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the installation directory (`/usr/local/mysql'), the commands look like this:
    shell> chown -R root  .
    shell> chown -R mysql var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  11. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.
  12. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see section 2.7 Perl Installation Notes.

After everything has been installed, you should initialize and test your distribution using this command:

shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the command.

If that command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, you can find some information in the file `mysql-data-directory/'hostname'.err'. The likely reason is that you already have another mysqld server running. See section 5.9 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

Now proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

2.3.2 Typical configure Options

The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line. You can also affect configure using certain environment variables. See section E Environment Variables. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:

shell> ./configure --help

Some of the more commonly used configure options are described here:

  • To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs and not the server, use the --without-server option:
    shell> ./configure --without-server
    
    If you don't have a C++ compiler, mysql will not compile (it is the one client program that requires C++). In this case, you can remove the code in configure that tests for the C++ compiler and then run ./configure with the --without-server option. The compile step will still try to build mysql, but you can ignore any warnings about `mysql.cc'. (If make stops, try make -k to tell it to continue with the rest of the build even if errors occur.)
  • If you want to get an embedded MySQL library (libmysqld.a) you should use the --with-embedded-server option.
  • If you don't want your log files and database directories located under `/usr/local/var', use a configure command, something like one of these:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
               --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
    
    The first command changes the installation prefix so that everything is installed under `/usr/local/mysql' rather than the default of `/usr/local'. The second command preserves the default installation prefix, but overrides the default location for database directories (normally `/usr/local/var') and changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data. After you have compiled MySQL, you can change these options with option files. See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.
  • If you are using Unix and you want the MySQL socket located somewhere other than the default location (normally in the directory `/tmp' or `/var/run') use a configure command like this:
    shell> ./configure \
               --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
    
    Note that the given file must be an absolute pathname. You can also later change the location of `mysql.sock' by using a MySQL option file. See section A.4.5 How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File `/tmp/mysql.sock'.
  • If you want to compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a binary distribution, to get more speed, or to work around problems with some Red Hat Linux distributions), run configure like this:
    shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static \
               --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
    
  • If you are using gcc and don't have libg++ or libstdc++ installed, you can tell configure to use gcc as your C++ compiler:
    shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
    
    When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it will not attempt to link in libg++ or libstdc++. This may be a good idea to do even if you have these libraries installed, as some versions of them have caused strange problems for MySQL users in the past. The following list indicates some compilers and environment variable settings that are commonly used with each one.
    gcc 2.7.2:
    CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors"
    egcs 1.0.3a:
    CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \ -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
    gcc 2.95.2:
    CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro \ -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
    pgcc 2.90.29 or newer:
    CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double" CXX=gcc \ CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -mstack-align-double \ -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti"
    In most cases you can get a reasonably optimal MySQL binary by using the options from the preceding list and adding the following options to the configure line:
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
    
    The full configure line would, in other words, be something like the following for all recent gcc versions:
    CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro \
    -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
    
    The binaries we provide on the MySQL Web site at http://www.mysql.com/ are all compiled with full optimization and should be perfect for most users. See section 2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB. There are some configuration setings you can tweak to make an even faster binary, but this is only for advanced users. See section 7.5.3 How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL. If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or linker not being able to create the shared library `libmysqlclient.so.#' (`#' is a version number), you can work around this problem by giving the --disable-shared option to configure. In this case, configure will not build a shared `libmysqlclient.so.#' library.
  • You can configure MySQL not to use DEFAULT column values for non-NULL columns (that is, columns that are not allowed to be NULL). See section 1.8.6.2 Constraint NOT NULL and DEFAULT values.
    shell> CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_DEFAULT_FIELDS ./configure
    
    The effect of this flag is to cause any INSERT statement to fail unless it provides explicit values for all columns that require a non-NULL value.
  • By default, MySQL uses the ISO-8859-1 (Latin1) character set. To change the default set, use the --with-charset option:
    shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
    
    CHARSET may be one of big5, cp1251, cp1257, czech, danish, dec8, dos, euc_kr, gb2312, gbk, german1, hebrew, hp8, hungarian, koi8_ru, koi8_ukr, latin1, latin2, sjis, swe7, tis620, ujis, usa7, or win1251ukr. See section 5.7.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting. As of MySQL 4.1.1, the default collation may also be specified. MySQL uses the latin1_swedish_ci collation. To change this, use the --with-collation option:
    shell> ./configure --with-collation=COLLATION
    
    To change both the character set and the collation, use both the --with-charset and --with-collation options. The collation must be a legal collation for the character set. (Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.) If you want to convert characters between the server and the client, you should take a look at the SET CHARACTER SET command. See section 14.5.3.1 SET Syntax. Warning: If you change character sets after having created any tables, you will have to run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on every table. Your indexes may be sorted incorrectly otherwise. (This can happen if you install MySQL, create some tables, then reconfigure MySQL to use a different character set and reinstall it.) With the configure option --with-extra-charsets=LIST, you can define which additional character sets should be compiled into the server. LIST is either a list of character sets separated with spaces, complex to include all characters that can't be dynamically loaded, or all to include all character sets into the binaries.
  • To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug option:
    shell> ./configure --with-debug
    
    This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can find some errors and that provides output about what is happening. See section D.1 Debugging a MySQL server.
  • If your client programs are using threads, you also must compile a thread-safe version of the MySQL client library with the --enable-thread-safe-client configure options. This will create a libmysqlclient_r library with which you should link your threaded applications. See section 20.2.14 How to Make a Threaded Client.
  • Options that pertain to particular systems can be found in the system-specific section of this manual. See section 2.6 Operating System Specific Notes.

2.3.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree

Caution: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our new code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard release distribution (either a binary or source distribution will do).

To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:

  1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You will need Bitkeeper 3.0 or newer to access our repository.
  2. Follow the instructions to install it.
  3. After BitKeeper is installed, first go to the directory you want to work from, and then use one of the following commands to clone the MySQL version branch of your choice: To clone the old 3.23 branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-3.23 mysql-3.23
    
    To clone the 4.0 stable (production) branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.0 mysql-4.0
    
    To clone the 4.1 alpha branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    To clone the 5.0 development branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-5.0 mysql-5.0
    
    In the preceding examples the source tree will be set up in the `mysql-3.23/', `mysql-4.0/', `mysql-4.1/', or `mysql-5.0/' subdirectory of your current directory. If you are behind a firewall and can only initiate HTTP connections, you can also use BitKeeper via HTTP. If you are required to use a proxy server, set the environment variable http_proxy to point to your proxy:
    shell> export http_proxy="http://your.proxy.server:8080/"
    
    Now, simply replace the bk:// with http:// when doing a clone. Example:
    shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of your connection--please be patient.
  4. You will need GNU make, autoconf 2.53 (or newer), automake 1.5, libtool 1.5, and m4 to run the next set of commands. Even though many operating systems already come with their own implementation of make, chances are high that the compilation will fail with strange error messages. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make (sometimes named gmake) instead. Fortunately, a large number of operating systems already ship with the GNU toolchain preinstalled or supply installable packages of these. In any case, they can also be downloaded from the following locations:
    • http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/
    • http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/
    • http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/
    • http://www.gnu.org/software/make/
    If you are trying to configure MySQL 4.1 or later, you will also need GNU bison 1.75 or later. Older versions of bison may report this error:
    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
    
    Note: The maximum table size is not actually exceeded, the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison. Versions of MySQL before version 4.1 may also compile with other yacc implementations (for example, BSD yacc 91.7.30). For later versions, GNU bison is required. The following example shows the typical commands required to configure a source tree. The first cd command changes location into the top-level directory of the tree; replace `mysql-4.0' with the appropriate directory name.
    shell> cd mysql-4.0
    shell> bk -r edit
    shell> aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake
    shell> (cd innobase; aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake)
    shell> (cd bdb/dist; sh s_all)
    shell> ./configure  # Add your favorite options here
    make
    
    The command lines that change directory into the `innobase' and `bdb/dist' directories are used to configure the InnoDB and Berkeley DB (BDB) storage engines. You can omit these command lines if you to not require InnoDB or BDB support. If you get some strange error during this stage, verify that you really have libtool installed. A collection of our standard configuration scripts is located in the `BUILD/' subdirectory. You may find it more convenient to use the `BUILD/compile-pentium-debug' script than the preceding set of shell commands.. To compile on a different architecture, modify the script by removing flags that are Pentium-specific.
  5. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another installation of MySQL, we recommend that you run ./configure with different values for the --prefix, --with-tcp-port, and --unix-socket-path options than those used for your production server.
  6. Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash. Start by running make test. See section 22.1.2 MySQL Test Suite.
  7. If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please report it in our bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/. If you have installed the latest versions of the required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not found error or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure all the necessary tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.
  8. After the initial bk clone operation to obtain the source tree, you should run bk pull periodically to get updates.
  9. You can examine the change history for the tree with all the diffs by using bk revtool. If you see some funny diffs or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to send email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists. Also, if you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an email message to the same address with a patch. bk diffs will produce a patch for you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not have the time to code your idea, just send a description.
  10. BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.
  11. Please note that any commits (bk ci or bk citool) will trigger the posting of a message with the changeset to our internals mailing list, as well as the usual openlogging.org submission with just the changeset comments. Generally, you wouldn't need to use commit (since the public tree will not allow bk push), but rather use the bk diffs method described previously.

You can also browse changesets, comments, and source code online. For example, to browse this information for MySQL 4.1, go to http://mysql.bkbits.net:8080/mysql-4.1.

The manual is in a separate tree which can be cloned with:

shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqldoc mysqldoc

There are also public BitKeeper trees for MySQL Control Center and Connector/ODBC. They can be cloned respectively as follows.

To clone MySQL Control center, use this command:

shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqlcc mysqlcc

To clone Connector/ODBC, use this command:

shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/myodbc3 myodbc3

2.3.4 Dealing With Problems Compiling MySQL

All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris or Linux using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. See section 2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes for warnings that may occur when using MIT-pthreads. For other problems, check the following list.

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If configure is run after it already has been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in `config.cache'. When configure starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.
  • Each time you run configure, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before re-running configure:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Alternatively, you can run make distclean.

The following list describes some of the problems when compiling MySQL that have been found to occur most often:

  • If you get errors when compiling `sql_yacc.cc', such as the ones shown here, you have probably run out of memory or swap space:
    Internal compiler error: program cc1plus got fatal signal 11
    
    Or:
    Out of virtual memory
    
    Or:
    Virtual memory exhausted
    
    The problem is that gcc requires huge amounts of memory to compile `sql_yacc.cc' with inline functions. Try running configure with the --with-low-memory option:
    shell> ./configure --with-low-memory
    
    This option causes -fno-inline to be added to the compile line if you are using gcc and -O0 if you are using something else. You should try the --with-low-memory option even if you have so much memory and swap space that you think you can't possibly have run out. This problem has been observed to occur even on systems with generous hardware configurations, and the --with-low-memory option usually fixes it.
  • By default, configure picks c++ as the compiler name and GNU c++ links with -lg++. If you are using gcc, that behavior can cause problems during configuration such as this:
    configure: error: installation or configuration problem:
    C++ compiler cannot create executables.
    
    You might also observe problems during compilation related to g++, libg++, or libstdc++. One cause of these problems is that you may not have g++, or you may have g++ but not libg++, or libstdc++. Take a look at the `config.log' file. It should contain the exact reason why your C++ compiler didn't work. To work around these problems, you can use gcc as your C++ compiler. Try setting the environment variable CXX to "gcc -O3". For example:
    shell> CXX="gcc -O3" ./configure
    
    This works because gcc compiles C++ sources as well as g++ does, but does not link in libg++ or libstdc++ by default. Another way to fix these problems is to install g++, libg++, and libstdc++. We would however like to recommend you to not use libg++ or libstdc++ with MySQL as this will only increase the binary size of mysqld without giving you any benefits. Some versions of these libraries have also caused strange problems for MySQL users in the past. Using gcc as the C++ compiler is also required, if you want to compile MySQL with RAID functionality (see section 14.2.5 CREATE TABLE Syntax for more info on RAID table type) and you are using GNU gcc version 3 and above. If you get errors like those following during the linking stage when you configure MySQL to compile with the option --with-raid, try to use gcc as your C++ compiler by defining the CXX environment variable:
    gcc -O3 -DDBUG_OFF -rdynamic -o isamchk isamchk.o sort.o  libnisam.a
    ../mysys/libmysys.a ../dbug/libdbug.a ../strings/libmystrings.a
     -lpthread -lz -lcrypt -lnsl -lm -lpthread
    ../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x79): In function
    `my_raid_create':: undefined reference to `operator new(unsigned)'
    ../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0xdd): In function
    `my_raid_create':: undefined reference to `operator delete(void*)'
    ../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x129): In function
    `my_raid_open':: undefined reference to `operator new(unsigned)'
    ../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x189): In function
    `my_raid_open':: undefined reference to `operator delete(void*)'
    ../mysys/libmysys.a(raid.o)(.text+0x64b): In function
    `my_raid_close':: undefined reference to `operator delete(void*)'
    collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
    
  • If your compile fails with errors, such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:
    making all in mit-pthreads
    make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
    Badly formed macro assignment
    
    Or:
    make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:
    
    Or:
    pthread.h: No such file or directory
    
    Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs. GNU make Version 3.75 is known to work.
  • If you want to define flags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, do so by adding the flags to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You can also specify the compiler names this way using CC and CXX. For example:
    shell> CC=gcc
    shell> CFLAGS=-O3
    shell> CXX=gcc
    shell> CXXFLAGS=-O3
    shell> export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
    
    See section 2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB, for a list of flag definitions that have been found to be useful on various systems.
  • If you get an error message like this, you need to upgrade your gcc compiler:
    client/libmysql.c:273: parse error before `__attribute__'
    
    gcc 2.8.1 is known to work, but we recommend using gcc 2.95.2 or egcs 1.0.3a instead.
  • If you get errors such as those shown here when compiling mysqld, configure didn't correctly detect the type of the last argument to accept(), getsockname(), or getpeername():
    cxx: Error: mysqld.cc, line 645: In this statement, the referenced
         type of the pointer value ''length'' is ''unsigned long'',
         which is not compatible with ''int''.
    new_sock = accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&cAddr, &length);
    
    To fix this, edit the `config.h' file (which is generated by configure). Look for these lines:
    /* Define as the base type of the last arg to accept */
    #define SOCKET_SIZE_TYPE XXX
    
    Change XXX to size_t or int, depending on your operating system. (Note that you will have to do this each time you run configure because configure regenerates `config.h'.)
  • The `sql_yacc.cc' file is generated from `sql_yacc.yy'. Normally the build process doesn't need to create `sql_yacc.cc', because MySQL comes with an already generated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:
    "sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
    
    This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.
  • On Debian Linux 3.0, you need to install gawk instead of the default mawk, if you want to compile MySQL 4.1 or higher with Berkeley DB support.
  • If you need to debug mysqld or a MySQL client, run configure with the --with-debug option, then recompile and link your clients with the new client library. See section D.2 Debugging a MySQL client.
  • If you get a compilation error on Linux (for example, SuSE Linux 8.1 or Red Hat Linux 7.3) similar to the following one:
    libmysql.c:1329: warning: passing arg 5 of `gethostbyname_r' from
    incompatible pointer type
    libmysql.c:1329: too few arguments to function `gethostbyname_r'
    libmysql.c:1329: warning: assignment makes pointer from integer
    without a cast
    make[2]: *** [libmysql.lo] Error 1
    
    By default, the configure script attempts to determine the correct number of arguments by using g++ the GNU C++ compiler. This test yields wrong results, if g++ is not installed. There are two ways to work around this problem:
    • Make sure that the GNU C++ g++ is installed. On some Linux distributions, the required package is called gpp, on others it is named gcc-c++.
    • Use gcc as your C++ compiler by setting the CXX environment variable to gcc:
      export CXX="gcc"
      
    Please note that you need to run configure again afterward.

2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes

This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.

Note that on Linux you should not use MIT-pthreads but use the installed LinuxThreads implementation instead. See section 2.6.1 Linux Notes.

If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using the MIT-pthreads package. This includes older FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4 and earlier, and some others. See section 2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL.

Note that, beginning with MySQL 4.0.2, MIT-pthreads are no longer part of the source distribution. If you require this package, you need to download it separately from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/pthreads-1_60_beta6-mysql.tar.gz

After downloading, extract this source archive into the top level of the MySQL source directory. It will create a new subdirectory mit-pthreads.

  • On most systems, you can force MIT-pthreads to be used by running configure with the --with-mit-threads option:
    shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads
    
    Building in a non-source directory is not supported when using MIT-pthreads because we want to minimize our changes to this code.
  • The checks that determine whether to use MIT-pthreads occur only during the part of the configuration process that deals with the server code. If you have configured the distribution using --without-server to build only the client code, clients will not know whether MIT-pthreads is being used and will use Unix socket connections by default. Because Unix socket files do not work under MIT-pthreads on some platforms, this means you will need to use -h or --host when you run client programs.
  • When MySQL is compiled using MIT-pthreads, system locking is disabled by default for performance reasons. You can tell the server to use system locking with the --external-locking option. This is only needed if you want to be able to run two MySQL servers against the same datafiles (not recommended).
  • Sometimes the pthread bind() command fails to bind to a socket without any error message (at least on Solaris). The result is that all connections to the server fail. For example:
    shell> mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin: connect to server at '' failed;
    error: 'Can't connect to mysql server on localhost (146)'
    
    The solution to this is to kill the mysqld server and restart it. This has only happened to us when we have forced down the server and done a restart immediately.
  • With MIT-pthreads, the sleep() system call isn't interruptible with SIGINT (break). This is only noticeable when you run mysqladmin --sleep. You must wait for the sleep() call to terminate before the interrupt is served and the process stops.
  • When linking, you may receive warning messages like these (at least on Solaris); they can be ignored:
    ld: warning: symbol `_iob' has differing sizes:
        (file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
    file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
        /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
    ld: warning: symbol `__iob' has differing sizes:
        (file /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) value=0x4;
    file /usr/lib/libc.so value=0x140);
        /my/local/pthreads/lib/libpthread.a(findfp.o) definition taken
    
  • Some other warnings also can be ignored:
    implicit declaration of function `int strtoll(...)'
    implicit declaration of function `int strtoul(...)'
    
  • We haven't gotten readline to work with MIT-pthreads. (This isn't needed, but may be interesting for someone.)

2.3.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows

These instructions describe how to build MySQL binaries from source for versions 4.1 and above on Windows. Instructions are provided for building binaries from a standard source distribution or from the BitKeeper tree that contains the latest development source.

Note: The instructions in this document are strictly for users who want to test MySQL on Windows from the latest source distribution or from the BitKeeper tree. For production use, MySQL AB does not advise using a MySQL server built by yourself from source. Normally, it is best to use precompiled binary distributions of MySQL that are built specifically for optimal performance on Windows by MySQL AB. Instructions for installing a binary distributions are available at section 2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows.

To build MySQL on Windows from source, you need the following compiler and resources available on your Windows system:

You'll also need a MySQL source distribution for Windows. There are two ways you can get a source distribution for MySQL version 4.1 and above:

  1. Obtain a source distribution packaged by MySQL AB for the particular version of MySQL in which you are interested. Prepackaged source distributions are available for released versions of MySQL and can be obtained from http://www.mysql.com/downloads/.
  2. You can package a source distribution yourself from the latest BitKeeper developer source tree. If you plan to do this, you must create the package on a Unix system and then transfer it to your Windows system. (The reason for this is that some of the configuration and build steps require tools that work only on Unix.) The BitKeeper approach thus requires:
    • A system running Unix, or a Unix-like system such as Linux.
    • BitKeeper 3.0 installed on that system. You can obtain BitKeeper from http://www.bitkeeper.com/.

If you are using a Windows source distribution, you can go directly to section 2.3.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++. To build from the BitKeeper tree, proceed to section 2.3.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest Development Source.

If you find something not working as expected, or you have suggestions about ways to improve the current build process on Windows, please send a message to the win32 mailing list. See section 1.7.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

2.3.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++

Note: MySQL 4.1 and above VC++ workspace files are compatible with Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 and above (7.0/.NET) editions and tested by MySQL AB staff before each release.

Follow this procedure to build MySQL:

  1. Create a work directory (for example, `workdir').
  2. Unpack the source distribution in the aforementioned directory using WinZip or other Windows tools that can read `.zip' files.
  3. Start the VC++ 6.0 compiler.
  4. In the File menu, select Open Workspace.
  5. Open the `mysql.dsw' workspace you find in the work directory.
  6. From the Build menu, select the Set Active Configuration menu.
  7. Click over the screen selecting mysqld - Win32 Debug and click OK.
  8. Press F7 to begin the build of the debug server, libraries, and some client applications.
  9. Compile the release versions that you want, in the same way.
  10. Debug versions of the programs and libraries are placed in the `client_debug' and `lib_debug' directories. Release versions of the programs and libraries are placed in the `client_release' and `lib_release' directories. Note that if you want to build both debug and release versions, you can select the ``build all'' option from the Build menu.
  11. Test the server. The server built using the preceding instructions will expect that the MySQL base directory and data directory are `C:\mysql' and `C:\mysql\data' by default. If you want to test your server using the source tree root directory and its data directory as the base directory and data directory, you will need to tell the server their pathnames. You can either do this on the command line with the --basedir and --datadir options, or place appropriate options in an option file (`C:\my.cnf' or the `my.ini' file in your Windows directory). If you have an existing data directory elsewhere that you want to use, you can specify its pathname instead.
  12. Start your server from the `client_release' or `client_debug' directory, depending on which server you want to use. The general server startup instructions are at section 2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows. You'll need to to adapt the instructions appropriately if you want to use a different base directory or data directory.
  13. When the server is running in standalone fashion or as a service based on your configuration, try to connect to it from the mysql interactive command-line utility that exists in your `client_release' or `client_debug' directory.

When you are satisifed that the programs you have built are working correctly, stop the server. Then install MySQL as follows:

  1. Create the directories where you want to install MySQL. For example, to install into `C:\mysql', use these commands:
    C:
    mkdir \mysql
    mkdir \mysql\bin
    mkdir \mysql\data
    mkdir \mysql\share
    mkdir \mysql\scripts
    
    If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also create several additional directories:
    mkdir \mysql\include
    mkdir \mysql\lib
    mkdir \mysql\lib\debug
    mkdir \mysql\lib\opt
    
    If you want to benchmark MySQL, create this directory:
    mkdir \mysql\sql-bench
    
    Benchmarking requires Perl support.
  2. From the `workdir' directory, copy into the C:\mysql directory the following directories:
    copy client_release\*.exe C:\mysql\bin
    copy client_debug\mysqld.exe C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-debug.exe
    xcopy scripts\*.* C:\mysql\scripts /E
    xcopy share\*.* C:\mysql\share /E
    
    If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also copy several libraries and header files:
    copy lib_debug\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\debug
    copy lib_debug\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
    copy lib_debug\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
    copy lib_release\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\opt
    copy lib_release\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
    copy lib_release\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
    copy include\*.h C:\mysql\include
    copy libmysql\libmysql.def C:\mysql\include
    
    If you want to benchmark MySQL, you should also do this:
    xcopy sql-bench\*.* C:\mysql\bench /E
    

Set up and start the server in the same way as for the binary Windows distribution. See section 2.2.1 Installing MySQL on Windows.

2.3.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest Development Source

To create a Windows source package from the current BitKeeper source tree, use the following instructions. Please note that this procedure must be performed on a system running a Unix or Unix-like operating system. (The procedure is known to work well on Linux, for example.)

  1. Clone the BitKeeper source tree for MySQL (version 4.1 or above, as desired). For more information on how to clone the source tree, see the instructions at section 2.3.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree.
  2. Configure and build the distribution so that you have a server binary to work with. One way to do this is to run the following command in the top-level directory of your source tree:
    shell> ./BUILD/compile-pentium-max
    
  3. After making sure that the build process completed successfully, run the following utility script from top-level directory of your source tree:
    shell> ./scripts/make_win_src_distribution
    
    This script creates a Windows source package, to be used on your Windows system. You can supply different options to the script based on your needs. It accepts the following options:
    --debug   Print information about script operations,
              do not create package
    --tmp     Specify the temporary location
    --suffix  Suffix name for the package
    --dirname Directory name to copy files (intermediate)
    --silent  Do not print verbose list of files processed
    --tar     Create tar.gz package instead of .zip package
    --help    Show this help message
    
    By default, make_win_src_distribution creates a zipped archive with the name `mysql-VERSION-win-src.zip', where VERSION represents the version of your MySQL source tree.
  4. Copy or upload to your Windows machine the Windows source package that you have just created. To compile it, use the instructions in section 2.3.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++.

2.3.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows

In your source files, you should include `my_global.h' before `mysql.h':

#include <my_global.h>
#include <mysql.h>

`my_global.h' includes any other files needed for Windows compatibility (such as `windows.h') if you compile your program on Windows.

You can either link your code with the dynamic `libmysql.lib' library, which is just a wrapper to load in `libmysql.dll' on demand, or link with the static `mysqlclient.lib' library.

The MySQL client libraries are compiled as threaded libraries, so you should also compile your code to be multi-threaded.

2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing

There are some issues you should address after installing MySQL. For example, on Unix, you should initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. On all platforms, an important security concern is that the initial accounts in the grant tables have no passwords. You should assign passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL server.

The following sections describe post-installation procedures for Windows systems and for Unix systems.

2.4.1 Windows Post-installation Procedures

On Windows, the data directory and the grant tables do not have to be created. MySQL Windows distributions include the grant tables already set up with a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database under the data directory. However, you should assign passwords to the accounts.

The default privileges on Windows give all local users full privileges to all databases without specifying a password. To make MySQL more secure, you should set a password for at least the root accounts. You should also remove the row in the mysql.user table that has Host='localhost' and User=''. This account allows anonymous access but has full privileges, so removing it improves security.

The following example shows how to remove the anonymous-user account that has all privileges, and then assigns a password to the root accounts:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -u root mysql
mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE Host='localhost' AND User='';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
mysql> QUIT
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root password "newpwd"
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root -h host_name password "newpwd"

Replace ``newpwd'' with the actual root password that you want to use. The double quotes are not always necessary, but they are helpful if the password contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter. In the second mysqladmin command, replace host_name with the name of the server host.

After you've assigned a password to the root accounts, you'll need to specify it whenever you run a MySQL client program to connect to the server as root. For example, if you want to use mysqladmin to shut down the server, you can do so using this command:

C:\> mysqladmin --user=root -p shutdown

If you are using a server from a very old version of MySQL, the mysqladmin command to set the password will fail with an error: parse error near 'SET password'. The solution to this problem is to upgrade the server to a newer version of MySQL.

With the current MySQL versions you can easily add new users and change privileges with GRANT and REVOKE commands. See section 14.5.1.2 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

2.4.2 Unix Post-installation Procedures

After you install MySQL on Unix, you need to initialize the grant tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works okay. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your system starts and stops.

The grant tables on Unix are set up by the mysql_install_db program. For some installation methods, this program is run for you automatically:

  • If you install MySQL on Linux using RPM distributions, the server RPM runs mysql_install_db.
  • If you install MySQL on Mac OS X using a PKG distribution, the installer runs mysql_install_db.

Otherwise, you'll need to run mysql_install_db yourself.

The following procedure describes how to initialize the grant tables and then start the server. It also suggests some commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly. For information about starting and stopping the server automatically, see section 2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server.

After you complete the procedure and have the server running, you should assign passwords to the accounts created by mysql_install_db. Instructions for doing so are given in section 5.5.2 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts.

  1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by BASEDIR:
    shell> cd BASEDIR
    
    BASEDIR is likely to be something like `/usr/local/mysql' or `/usr/local'. The following steps assume that you are located in this directory.
  2. If necessary, set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to the server. You'll need to do this if you used a distribution type that doesn't do it for you. To initialize the grant tables, run the mysql_install_db script:
    • If you installed MySQL using a binary distribution, use this command:
      shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
      
    • If you installed MySQL using a source distribution, use this command:
      shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
      
    The mysql_install_db script creates the mysql database that holds all database privileges, and the test database that you can use to test MySQL. The script also creates privilege table entries for root accounts and anonymous-user accounts. The accounts have no passwords initially. A description of their initial privileges is given in section 5.5.2 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use databases with a name of test or starting with test_. It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run mysql_install_db as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command. mysql_install_db creates several tables in the mysql database: user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv, func, and possibly others depending on your version of MySQL. If you don't want to have the test database, you can remove it with mysqladmin -u root drop test after starting the server. Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL, so you can skip this step if you are upgrading an existing installation, However, mysql_install_db does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances. If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see section 2.4.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db. There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided in the MySQL distribution:
    • If you want the initial privileges to be different from the standard defaults, you can modify mysql_install_db before you run it. However, a preferable technique is to use GRANT and REVOKE to change the privileges after the grant tables have been set up. In other words, you can run mysql_install_db, and then use mysql -u root mysql to connect to the server as the MySQL root user so that you can issue the GRANT and REVOKE statements. If you want to install MySQL on a lot of machines with the same privileges, you can put the GRANT and REVOKE statements in a file and execute the file as a script using mysql after running mysql_install_db. For example:
      shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
      shell> bin/mysql -u root < your_script_file
      
      By doing this, you can avoid having to issue the statements manually on each machine.
    • It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have already been created. You might want to do this if you're just learning how to use GRANT and REVOKE and have made so many modifications after running mysql_install_db that you want to wipe out the tables and start over. To re-create the grant tables, remove all the `.frm', `.MYI', and `.MYD' files in the directory containing the mysql database. (This is the directory named `mysql' under the data directory, which is listed as the datadir value when you run mysqld --help.) Then run the mysql_install_db script again. Note: For MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10, you should not delete the `.frm' files. If you accidentally do this, you should copy them back into the `mysql' directory from your MySQL distribution before running mysql_install_db.
    • You can start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant-tables option and add the privilege information yourself using mysql:
      shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --skip-grant-tables &
      shell> bin/mysql mysql
      
      From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands contained in mysql_install_db. Make sure you run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables. Note that by not using mysql_install_db, you not only have to populate the grant tables manually, you have to create them first.
  3. Start the MySQL server:
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
    
    For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in this command. It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run mysql_safe as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command. Further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user are given in section A.3.2 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User. If you neglected to create the grant tables before proceeding to this step, the following message will appear in the error log file when you start the server:
    mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'
    
    If you have other problems starting the server, see section 2.4.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server.
  4. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    shell> bin/mysqladmin variables
    
    The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin  Ver 8.40 Distrib 4.0.18, for linux on i586
    Copyright (C) 2000 MySQL AB & MySQL Finland AB & TCX DataKonsult AB
    This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
    and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license
    
    Server version          4.0.18-log
    Protocol version        10
    Connection              Localhost via Unix socket
    TCP port                3306
    UNIX socket             /tmp/mysql.sock
    Uptime:                 16 sec
    
    Threads: 1  Questions: 9  Slow queries: 0
    Opens: 7  Flush tables: 2  Open tables: 0
    Queries per second avg: 0.000
    Memory in use: 132K  Max memory used: 16773K
    
    To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.
  5. Verify that you can shut down the server:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  6. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --log &
    
    If mysqld_safe fails, see section 2.4.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server.
  7. Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to what is shown here:
    shell> bin/mysqlshow
    +-----------+
    | Databases |
    +-----------+
    | mysql     |
    | test      |
    +-----------+
    
    shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
    Database: mysql
    +--------------+
    |    Tables    |
    +--------------+
    | columns_priv |
    | db           |
    | func         |
    | host         |
    | tables_priv  |
    | user         |
    +--------------+
    
    shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
    +------+--------+------+
    | host | db     | user |
    +------+--------+------+
    | %    | test   |      |
    | %    | test_% |      |
    +------+--------+------+
    
  8. There is a benchmark suite in the `sql-bench' directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms. The benchmark suite is written in Perl. It uses the Perl DBI module to provide a database-independent interface to the various databases, and some other additional Perl modules are required to run the benchmark suite. You must have the following modules installed:
    DBI
    DBD::mysql
    Data::Dumper
    Data::ShowTable
    
    These modules can be obtained from CPAN http://www.cpan.org/. See section 2.7.1 Installing Perl on Unix. The `sql-bench/Results' directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
    shell> cd sql-bench
    shell> perl run-all-tests
    
    If you don't have the `sql-bench' directory, you probably installed MySQL using RPM files other than the source RPM. (The source RPM includes the `sql-bench' benchmark directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. Beginning with MySQL Version 3.22, there are separate benchmark RPM files named `mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm' that contain benchmark code and data. If you have a source distribution, there are also tests in its `tests' subdirectory that you can run. For example, to run `auto_increment.tst', execute this command from the top-level directory of your source distribution:
    shell> mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
    
    The expected result of the test can be found in the `./tests/auto_increment.res' file.
  9. At this point, you should have the server running. None of the initial MySQL accounts have a password, so you should assign passwords using the instructions in section 5.5.2 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts.

2.4.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables. It will not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it will not affect any other data.

If you want to re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it's running. Then rename the `mysql' directory under the data directory to save it, and then run mysql_install_db. For example:

shell> mv mysql-data-directory/mysql mysql-data-directory/mysql-old
shell> mysql_install_db --user=mysql

This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:

mysql_install_db doesn't install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysqld ended
In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should be located in the directory `XXXXXX' named by the error message, and should indicate why mysqld didn't start. If you don't understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report. See section 1.7.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
There is already a mysqld process running
This indicates that the server is already running, in which case the grant tables probably have already been created. If so, you don't have to run mysql_install_db at all because it need be run only once (when you install MySQL the first time).
Installing a second mysqld server doesn't work when one server is running
This can happen when you already have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might have a production installation already, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is already in use by the first server. In this case, you will see one of the following error messages:
Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
Address already in use
Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
For instructions on setting up multiple servers to run on the same machine, see section 5.9 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.
You don't have write access to `/tmp'
If you don't have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in the default location (the `/tmp' directory), an error will occur when you run mysql_install_db or the mysqld server. You can specify different temporary directory and Unix socket file locations by executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
`some_tmp_dir' should be the full pathname to some directory for which you have write permission. After this, you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
See section A.4.5 How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File `/tmp/mysql.sock'. See section E Environment Variables.

2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

  • By invoking mysqld directly. This works on any platform.
  • By running the MySQL server as a Windows service. This can be done on versions of Windows that support services (such as NT, 2000, and XP). The service can be set to start the server automatically when Windows starts, or as a manual service that you start on request. For instructions, see section 2.2.1.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service.
  • By invoking mysqld_safe, which tries to determine the proper options for mysqld and then runs it with those options. This script is used on systems based on BSD Unix. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.
  • By invoking mysql.server. This script is used primarily at system startup and shutdown on systems that use System V-style run directories, where it usually is installed under the name mysql. The mysql.server script starts the server by invoking mysqld_safe. See section 5.1.4 The mysql.server Server Startup Script.
  • On Mac OS X, you can install a separate MySQL Startup Item package to enable the automatic startup of MySQL on system startup. The Startup Item starts the server by invoking mysql.server. See section 2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X for details.

The mysql.server and mysqld_safe scripts and the Mac OS X Startup Item can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

To start or stop the server manually using the mysql.server script, invoke it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop

Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then invokes mysqld_safe. If you want the server to run as some specific user, add an appropriate user option to the [mysqld] group of the `/etc/my.cnf' option file, as shown later in this section. (It is possible that you'll need to edit mysql.server if you've installed a binary distribution of MySQL in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into the proper directory before it runs mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified version of mysql.server may be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.)

mysql.server stop brings down the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you need to add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your `/etc/rc*' files.

Note that if you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), the mysql.server script will already have been installed in the `/etc/init.d' directory with the name `mysql'. You need not install it manually. See section 2.2.2 Installing MySQL on Linux for more information on the Linux RPM packages.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. The script can be found in the `support-files' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.

To install mysql.server manually, copy it to the `/etc/init.d' directory with the name mysql, and then make it executable. Do this by changing location into the appropriate directory where mysql.server is located and executing these commands:

shell> cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql

Older Red Hat systems use the `/etc/rc.d/init.d' directory rather than `/etc/init.d'. Adjust the preceding commands accordingly, or else first create `/etc/init.d' as a symbolic link that points to `/etc/rc.d/init.d'.

After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:

shell> chkconfig --add mysql

On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:

shell> chkconfig --level 345 mysql on

On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in `/usr/local/etc/rc.d/'. The rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this directory are executed only if their basename matches the *.sh shell filename pattern. Any other files or directories present within the directory are silently ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD you should install the `mysql.server' script as `/usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql.server.sh' to enable automatic startup.

As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems also use `/etc/rc.local' or `/etc/init.d/boot.local' to start additional services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, you could append a command like the one following to the appropriate startup file:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'

For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.

You can add options for mysql.server in a global `/etc/my.cnf' file. A typical `/etc/my.cnf' file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql

[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql

The mysql.server script understands the following options: basedir, datadir, and pid-file. If specified, they must be placed in an option file, not on the command line. mysql.server understands only start and stop as command-line arguments.

The following table shows which option groups the server and each startup script reads from option files:

Script Option Groups
mysqld [mysqld], [server] and [mysqld-major-version]
mysql.server [mysql.server] and [mysqld]
mysqld_safe [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe]

[mysqld-major-version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-4.0], [mysqld-4.1], and [mysqld-5.0] will be read by servers having versions 4.0.x, 4.1.x, 5.0.x, and so forth. This feature was added in MySQL 4.0.14. It can be used to specify options that will be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. However, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or later.

See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.

2.4.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things you can try:

  • Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using.
  • Make sure the server knows where to find the data directory.
  • Check the error log to see why the server doesn't start.
  • Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.
  • Check the ownership and permissions of the data directory and its contents. They must be set such that the server can access and modify them.

Some storage engines have options that control their behavior. You can create a `my.cnf' file and set startup options for the engines you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, BDB), be sure you have them configured the way you want before starting the server:

  • If you are using InnoDB tables, refer to the InnoDB-specific startup options. In MySQL 3.23, you must configure InnoDB explicitly or the server will fail to start. From MySQL 4.0 on, InnoDB uses default values for its configuration options if you specify none. See section 16.4 InnoDB Configuration.
  • If you are using BDB (Berkeley DB) tables, you should familiarize yourself with the different BDB-specific startup options. See section 15.4.3 BDB Startup Options.

When the mysqld server starts, it changes location to the data directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. On Unix, the server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

The data directory location is hardwired in when the server is compiled. This is where the server looks for the data directory by default. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, the server will not work properly. You can find out what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)

If the defaults don't match the MySQL installation layout on your system, you can override them by specifying options on the command line to mysqld or mysqld_safe. You can also list the options in an option file.

To specify the location of the data directory explicitly, use the --datadir option. However, normally you can tell mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed and it will look for the data directory there. You can do this with the --basedir option.

To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory where mysqld is installed, and then run the following command, it will show the effect of starting the server with a base directory of `/usr/local':

shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help

You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but note that --verbose and --help must be the last options. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)

Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

shell> mysqladmin variables

Or:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'your-host-name' variables

Whichever method you use to start the server, if it fails to start up correctly, check the error log file to see if you can find out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically `C:\mysql\data' on Windows, `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a Unix binary distribution, and `/usr/local/var' for a Unix source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form `host_name.err' and `host_name.log', where host_name is the name of your server host. (Older servers on Windows use `mysql.err' as the error log name.) Then check the last few lines of these files. On Unix, you can use tail to display the last few lines:

shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log

The error log contains information that indicates why the server couldn't start. For example, you might see something like this in the error log:

000729 14:50:10  bdb:  Recovery function for LSN 1 27595 failed
000729 14:50:10  bdb:  warning: ./test/t1.db: No such file or directory
000729 14:50:10  Can't init databases

This means that you didn't start mysqld with the --bdb-no-recover option and Berkeley DB found something wrong with its own log files when it tried to recover your databases. To be able to continue, you should move away the old Berkeley DB log files from the database directory to some other place, where you can later examine them. The BDB log files are named in sequence beginning with `log.0000000001', where the number increases over time.

If you are running mysqld with BDB table support and mysqld dumps core at startup, this could be due to problems with the BDB recovery log. In this case, you can try starting mysqld with --bdb-no-recover. If that helps, then you should remove all BDB log files from the data directory and try starting mysqld again without the --bdb-no-recover option.

If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is already using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...

Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in section 5.9 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.)

If no other server is running, try to execute the command telnet your-host-name tcp-ip-port-number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you don't get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. You'll need to track down what program this is and disable it, or else tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, you'll also need to specify the port number for client programs when connecting to the server via TCP/IP.

If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the access privileges of the data directory or its contents do not allow the server access. In this case you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this can raise security issues and should be avoided.

If mysqld_safe starts the server but you can't connect to it, you should make sure you have an entry in `/etc/hosts' that looks like this:

127.0.0.1       localhost

This problem occurs only on systems that don't have a working thread library and for which MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.

If you can't get mysqld to start you can try to make a trace file to find the problem. See section D.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

2.5 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL

As a general rule, we recommend that when upgrading from one release series to another, you should go to the next series rather than skipping a series. For example, if you currently are running MySQL 3.23 and wish to upgrade to a newer series, upgrade to MySQL 4.0 rather than to 4.1 or 5.0.

The following items form a checklist of things you should do whenever you perform an upgrade:

  • Read the change log for the release series to which you are upgrading to see what new features you can use. For example, before upgrading from MySQL 4.1 to 5.0, read the 5.0 news items.
  • Before you do an upgrade, you should back up your old databases.
  • If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see section 2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL under Windows.
  • If you are using replication, see section 6.6 Upgrading a Replication Setup for information on upgrading your replication setup.
  • After upgrading, be sure your grant tables are up to date. (These are the tables in the mysql database.) Occasionally new columns or tables are added to support new features. To take advantage of these features, your tables must be current. The upgrade procedure is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

You can always move the MySQL format files and datafiles between different versions on the same architecture as long as you stay within versions for the same release series of MySQL. The current production release series is 4.0. If you change the character set when running MySQL, you must run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on all tables. Otherwise, your indexes may not be ordered correctly, because changing the character set may also change the sort order.

If you upgrade or downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, you can use mysqldump to dump your tables before upgrading. After upgrading, reload the dump file using mysql to re-create your tables.

If you are cautious about using new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld before installing a newer one. For example, if you are using MySQL 4.0.18 and want to upgrade to 4.1.1, rename your current server from mysqld to mysqld-4.0.18. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld.

If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with recompiled client programs, such as Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or library files when compiling your programs. In this case you should check the date for your `mysql.h' file and `libmysqlclient.a' library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, please recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries.

If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server doesn't want to start or that you can't connect without a password, verify that you don't have some old `my.cnf' file from your old installation. You can check this with: program-name --print-defaults. If this outputs anything other than the program name, you have an active `my.cnf' file that affects server or client operation.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Perl DBD::mysql module whenever you install a new release of MySQL. The same applies to other MySQL interfaces as well, such as the Python MySQLdb module.

2.5.1 Upgrading from Version 4.1 to 5.0

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 5.0 from an earlier version:

2.5.2 Upgrading from Version 4.0 to 4.1

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.1 from an earlier version:

  • Check the items in the change list found later in this section to see whether any of them might affect your applications.
  • Read the 4.1 news items to see what significant new features you can use in 4.1. See section C.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Alpha).
  • If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see section 2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL under Windows. Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain any installer program. See section 2.2.1.2 Installing a Windows Binary Distribution for instructions on how to install such a distribution.
  • If you are using replication, see section 6.6 Upgrading a Replication Setup for information on upgrading your replication setup.
  • After upgrading, update the grant tables to have the new longer Password column that is needed for secure handling of passwords. The procedure uses mysql_fix_privilege_tables and is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables. Implications of the password-handling change for applications are given later in this section. If you don't do this, MySQL will not us the new more secure protocol to authenticate.
  • The Berkeley DB table handler is updated to DB 4.1 (from 3.2) which has a new log format. If you have to downgrade back to 4.0 you must use mysqldump to convert your BDB tables to text format and delete all log.?????? files before you start MySQL 4.0 and read back the data.
  • String comparison now works according to SQL standard; Instead of stripping end space before comparison we now extend the shorter string with space. The problem with this is that now 'a' > 'a\t', which it wasn't before. If you have any tables where you have a CHAR or VARCHAR column where the last char in the column may be less than ASCII(32) you should use REPAIR TABLE or myisamchk to ensure that the table is correct.
  • If you have table columns that store character data represented in a character set that the 4.1 server now supports directly, you can convert the columns to the proper character set using the instructions in section 11.10.2 Converting 4.0 Character Columns to 4.1 Format.
  • Some API calls such as mysql_real_query() now return 1 on error, not -1. You may have to change some old applications if they use constructs like this:
    if (mysql_real_query(mysql_object, query, query_length) == -1)
    {
      printf("Got error");
    }
    
    Change the call to test for a nonzero value instead:
    if (mysql_real_query(mysql_object, query, query_length) != 0)
    {
      printf("Got error");
    }
    
  • If you are using an old DBD-mysql module (Msql-MySQL-modules) you have to upgrade to use the newer DBD-mysql modules. Anything above DBD-mysql-2 should be fine. If you don't upgrade, some commands (such as DBI->do()) will not notice error conditions correctly.

Several visible behaviors have changed between MySQL 4.0 and MySQL 4.1 to fix some critical bugs and make MySQL more compatible with the ANSI SQL standard. These changes may affect your applications.

Some of the 4.1 behaviors can be tested in 4.0 before performing a full upgrade to 4.1. We have added to later MySQL 4.0 releases (from 4.0.12 on) a --new startup option for mysqld. See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-line Options.

This option gives you the 4.1 behavior for the most critical changes. You can also enable these behaviors for a given client connection with the SET @@new=1 command, or turn them off if they are on with SET @@new=0.

If you believe that some of the 4.1 changes will affect you, we recommend that before upgrading to 4.1, you download the latest MySQL 4.0 version and run it with the --new option by adding the following to your config file:

[mysqld-4.0]
new

That way you can test the new behaviors in 4.0 to make sure that your applications work with them. This will help you have a smooth painless transition when you perform a full upgrade to 4.1 later. Putting the --new option in the [mysqld-4.0] option group ensures that you don't accidentally later run the 4.1 version with the --new option.

The following list describes changes that may affect applications and that you should watch out for when upgrading to version 4.1:

Server Changes:

  • All tables and string columns now have a character set. See section 11 Character Set Support. Character set information is displayed by SHOW CREATE TABLE and mysqldump. (MySQL versions 4.0.6 and above can read the new dump files; older versions cannot.) This change should not affect applications that uses only one character set.
  • The table definition format used in `.frm' files has changed slightly in 4.1. MySQL 4.0 versions from 4.0.11 on can read the new `.frm' format directly, but older versions cannot. If you need to move tables from 4.1 to a version earlier than 4.0.11, you should use mysqldump. See section 8.8 The mysqldump Database Backup Program.
  • Important note: If you upgrade to InnoDB-4.1.1 or higher, it is difficult to downgrade back to 4.0 or 4.1.0! That is because earlier versions of InnoDB are not aware of multiple tablespaces.
  • If you are running multiple servers on the same Windows machine, you should use a different --shared_memory_base_name option for each server.
  • The interface to aggregated UDF functions has changed a bit. You must now declare a xxx_clear() function for each aggregate function XXX().

SQL Changes:

  • When using DELETE with many tables, you have to use the alias of the tables from which you want to delete, not the actual table name.
    Change:
    
    DELETE test FROM test AS t1, test2 WHERE ...
    
    to
    
    DELETE t1 FROM test AS t1, test2 WHERE ...
    
  • TIMESTAMP is now returned as a string in 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS' format. (The --new option can be used from 4.0.12 on to make a 4.0 server behave as 4.1 in this respect.) If you want to have the value returned as a number (like Version 4.0 does) you should add +0 to TIMESTAMP columns when you retrieve them:
    mysql> SELECT ts_col + 0 FROM tbl_name;
    
    Display widths for TIMESTAMP columns are no longer supported. For example, if you declare a column as TIMESTAMP(10), the (10) is ignored. These changes were necessary for SQL standards compliance. In a future version, a further change will be made (backward compatible with this change), allowing the timestamp length to indicate the desired number of digits for fractions of a second.
  • Binary values such as 0xFFDF now are assumed to be strings instead of numbers. This fixes some problems with character sets where it's convenient to input a string as a binary value. With this change, you should use CAST() if you want to compare binary values numerically as integers:
    mysql> SELECT CAST(0xFEFF AS UNSIGNED INTEGER)
        ->        < CAST(0xFF AS UNSIGNED INTEGER);
            -> 0
    
    If you don't use CAST(), a lexical string comparison will be done:
    mysql> SELECT 0xFEFF < 0xFF;
            -> 1
    
    Using binary items in a numeric context or comparing them using the = operator should work as before. (The --new option can be used from 4.0.13 on to make a 4.0 server behave as 4.1 in this respect.)
  • For functions that produce a DATE, DATETIME, or TIME value, the result returned to the client now is fixed up to have a temporal type. For example, in MySQL 4.1, you get this result:
    mysql> SELECT CAST('2001-1-1' as DATETIME);
        -> '2001-01-01 00:00:00'
    
    In MySQL 4.0, the result is different:
    mysql> SELECT CAST('2001-1-1' as DATETIME);
        -> '2001-01-01'
    
  • DEFAULT values no longer can be specified for AUTO_INCREMENT columns. (In 4.0, a DEFAULT value is silently ignored; in 4.1, an error occurs).
  • LIMIT no longer accept negative arguments. Use 18446744073709551615 instead of -1.
  • SERIALIZE is no longer a valid mode value for the sql_mode variable. You should use SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE instead. SERIALIZE is no longer valid for the --sql-mode option for mysqld, either. Use --transaction-isolation=SERIALIZABLE instead.

The password hashing mechanism has changed in 4.1 to provide better security, but this may cause compatibility problems if you still have clients that use the client library from 4.0 or earlier. (It is very likely that you will have 4.0 clients in situations where clients connect from remote hosts that have not yet upgraded to 4.1). The following list indicates some possible upgrade strategies. They represent various tradeoffs between the goal of compatibility with old clients and the goal of security.

  • Only upgrade the client to use 4.1 client libraries (not the server). No behavior will change (except the return value of some API calls), but you cannot use any of the new features provided by the 4.1 client/server protocol, either. (MySQL 4.1 has an extended client/server protocol that offers such features as prepared statements and multiple result sets.) See section 20.2.4 C API Prepared Statements.
  • Upgrade to 4.1 and run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to widen the Password column in the user table so that it can hold long password hashes. But run the server with the --old-passwords option to provide backward compatibility that allows pre-4.1 clients to continue to connect to their short-hash accounts. Eventually, when all your clients are upgraded to 4.1, you can stop using the --old-passwords server option. You can also change the passwords for your MySQL accounts to use the new more secure format.
  • Upgrade to 4.1 and run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to widen the Password column in the user table. If you know that all clients also have been upgraded to 4.1, don't run the server with the --old-passwords option. Instead, change the passwords on all existing accounts so that they have the new format. A pure-4.1 installation is the most secure.

Further background on password hashing with respect to client authentication and password-changing operations may be found in section 5.4.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.

2.5.3 Upgrading from Version 3.23 to 4.0

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.0 from an earlier version:

  • Check the items in the change list found later in this section to see whether any of them might affect your applications.
  • Read the 4.0 news items to see what significant new features you can use in 4.0. See section C.3 Changes in release 4.0.x (Production).
  • If you are running MySQL Server on Windows, see section 2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL under Windows.
  • If you are using replication, see section 6.6 Upgrading a Replication Setup for information on upgrading your replication setup.
  • After upgrading, update the grant tables to add new privileges and features. The procedure uses the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script and is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.
  • Edit any MySQL startup scripts or option files to not use any of the deprecated options described later in this section.
  • Convert your old ISAM files to MyISAM files. One way to do this is with the mysql_convert_table_format script. (This is a Perl script; it requires that DBI be installed.) To convert the tables in a given database, use this command:
    shell> mysql_convert_table_format database db_name
    
    Note that this should only be used if all tables in the given database are ISAM or MyISAM tables. To avoid converting tables of other types to MyISAM, you can explicitly list the names of your ISAM tables after the database name on the command line. Individual tables can be changed to MyISAM by using the following ALTER TABLE statement for each table to be converted:
    mysql> ALTER TABLE tbl_name TYPE=MyISAM;
    
    If you are not sure of the table type for a given table, use this statement:
    mysql> SHOW TABLE STATUS LIKE 'tbl_name';
    
  • Ensure that you don't have any MySQL clients that use shared libraries (like the Perl DBD::mysql module). If you do, you should recompile them, because the data structures used in `libmysqlclient.so' have changed. The same applies to other MySQL interfaces as well, such as the Python MySQLdb module.

MySQL 4.0 will work even if you don't perform the preceding actions, but you will not be able to use the new security privileges in MySQL 4.0, and you may run into problems when upgrading later to MySQL 4.1 or newer. The ISAM file format still works in MySQL 4.0, but is deprecated and is not compiled in by default as of MySQL 4.1. MyISAM tables should be used instead.

Old clients should work with a Version 4.0 server without any problems.

Even if you perform the preceding actions, you can still downgrade to MySQL 3.23.52 or newer if you run into problems with the MySQL 4.0 series. In this case, you must use mysqldump to dump any tables that use full-text indexes and reload the dump file into the 3.23 server. This is necessary because 4.0 uses a new format for full-text indexing.

The following is a more complete list that tells what you must watch out for when upgrading to version 4.0:

Server Changes:

  • MySQL 4.0 has a lot of new privileges in the mysql.user table. See section 14.5.1.2 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax. To get these new privileges to work, you must update the grant tables. The procedure is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables. Until you do this, all accounts have the SHOW DATABASES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, and LOCK TABLES privileges. SUPER and EXECUTE privileges take their value from PROCESS. REPLICATION SLAVE and REPLICATION CLIENT take their values from FILE. If you have any scripts that create new MySQL user accounts, you may want to change them to use the new privileges. If you are not using GRANT commands in the scripts, this is a good time to change your scripts to use GRANT instead of modifying the grant tables directly. From version 4.0.2 on, the option --safe-show-database is deprecated (and no longer does anything). See section 5.3.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security. If you get Access denied errors for new users in version 4.0.2 and up, you should check whether you need some of the new grants that you didn't need before. In particular, you will need REPLICATION SLAVE (instead of FILE) for new slaves.
  • safe_mysqld has been renamed to mysqld_safe. For backward compatibility, binary distributions will for some time include safe_mysqld as a symlink to mysqld_safe.
  • InnoDB support is now included by default in binary distributions. If you build MySQL from source, InnoDB is configured in by default. If you do not use InnoDB and want to save memory when running a server that has InnoDB support enabled, use the --skip-innodb server startup option. To compile MySQL without InnoDB support, run configure with the --without-innodb option.
  • Values for the startup parameters myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size and myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size are now given in bytes (they were given in megabytes before 4.0.3).
  • mysqld now has the option --temp-pool enabled by default as this gives better performance with some operating systems (most notably Linux).
  • The mysqld startup options --skip-locking and --enable-locking were renamed to --skip-external-locking and --external-locking.
  • External system locking of MyISAM/ISAM files is now turned off by default. Your can turn this on by doing --external-locking. (However, this is never needed for most users.)
  • The following startup variables and options have been renamed:
    Old Name New Name
    myisam_bulk_insert_tree_size bulk_insert_buffer_size
    query_cache_startup_type query_cache_type
    record_buffer read_buffer_size
    record_rnd_buffer read_rnd_buffer_size
    sort_buffer sort_buffer_size
    warnings log-warnings
    --err-log --log-error (for mysqld_safe)
    The startup options record_buffer, sort_buffer and warnings will still work in MySQL 4.0 but are deprecated.

SQL Changes:

  • The following SQL variables have been renamed:
    Old Name New Name
    SQL_BIG_TABLES BIG_TABLES
    SQL_LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES
    SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE MAX_JOIN_SIZE
    SQL_QUERY_CACHE_TYPE QUERY_CACHE_TYPE
    The old names still work in MySQL 4.0 but are deprecated.
  • You have to use SET GLOBAL SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER=skip_count instead of SET SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER=skip_count.
  • SHOW MASTER STATUS now returns an empty set if binary logging is not enabled.
  • SHOW SLAVE STATUS now returns an empty set if the slave is not initialized.
  • SHOW INDEX has two more columns than it had in 3.23 (Null and Index_type).
  • The format of SHOW OPEN TABLES has changed.
  • ORDER BY col_name DESC sorts NULL values last, as of MySQL 4.0.11. In 3.23 and in earlier 4.0 versions, this was not always consistent.
  • CHECK, LOCALTIME, and LOCALTIMESTAMP are now reserved words.
  • DOUBLE and FLOAT columns now honor the UNSIGNED flag on storage (before, UNSIGNED was ignored for these columns).
  • The result of all bitwise operators (|, &, <<, >>, and ~)) is now unsigned. This may cause problems if you are using them in a context where you want a signed result. See section 13.7 Cast Functions. Note: when you use subtraction between integer values where one is of type UNSIGNED, the result will be unsigned. In other words, before upgrading to MySQL 4.0, you should check your application for cases where you are subtracting a value from an unsigned entity and want a negative answer or subtracting an unsigned value from an integer column. You can disable this behavior by using the --sql-mode=NO_UNSIGNED_SUBTRACTION option when starting mysqld. See section 13.7 Cast Functions.
  • You should use integers to store values in BIGINT columns (instead of using strings, as you did in MySQL 3.23). Using strings will still work, but using integers is more efficient.
  • In 3.23, INSERT INTO ... SELECT always had IGNORE enabled. In 4.0.1, MySQL will stop (and possibly roll back) by default in case of an error unless you specify IGNORE.
  • You should use TRUNCATE TABLE when you want to delete all rows from a table and you don't need to obtain a count of the number of rows that were deleted. (DELETE FROM tbl_name returns a row count in 4.0 and doesn't reset the AUTO_INCREMENT counter, and TRUNCATE TABLE is faster.)
  • You will get an error if you have an active LOCK TABLES or transaction when trying to execute TRUNCATE TABLE or DROP DATABASE.
  • To use MATCH ... AGAINST (... IN BOOLEAN MODE) full-text searches with your tables, you must rebuild their indexes with REPAIR TABLE tbl_name USE_FRM. If you attempt a boolean full-text search without rebuilding the indexes this way, the search will return incorrect results. See section 13.6.4 Fine-tuning MySQL Full-text Search.
  • LOCATE() and INSTR() are case-sensitive if one of the arguments is a binary string. Otherwise they are case-insensitive.
  • STRCMP() now uses the current character set when performing comparisons. This makes the default comparison behavior case insensitive unless one or both of the operands are binary strings.
  • HEX(string) now returns the characters in string converted to hexadecimal. If you want to convert a number to hexadecimal, you should ensure that you call HEX() with a numeric argument.
  • RAND(seed) returns a different random number series in 4.0 than in 3.23; this was done to further differentiate RAND(seed) and RAND(seed+1).
  • The default type returned by IFNULL(A,B) is now set to be the more ``general'' of the types of A and B. (The general-to-specific order is: string, REAL, INTEGER).

C API Changes:

  • The old C API functions mysql_drop_db(), mysql_create_db(), and mysql_connect() are no longer supported unless you compile MySQL with CFLAGS=-DUSE_OLD_FUNCTIONS. However, it is preferable to change client programs to use the new 4.0 API instead.
  • In the MYSQL_FIELD structure, length and max_length have changed from unsigned int to unsigned long. This should not cause any problems, except that they may generate warning messages when used as arguments in the printf() class of functions.
  • Multi-threaded clients should use mysql_thread_init() and mysql_thread_end(). See section 20.2.14 How to Make a Threaded Client.

Other Changes:

  • If you want to recompile the Perl DBD::mysql module, use a recent version. Version 2.9003 is recommended. Versions older than 1.2218 should not be used because they use the deprecated mysql_drop_db() call.

2.5.4 Upgrading from Version 3.22 to 3.23

MySQL Version 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old ISAM type. By default, all new tables are created with type MyISAM unless you start mysqld with the --default-table-type=isam option. You don't have to convert your old ISAM tables to use them with Version 3.23. You can convert an ISAM table to MyISAM format with ALTER TABLE tbl_name TYPE=MyISAM or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_format.

Version 3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a Version 3.23 server.

When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:

Client Program Changes:

  • The MySQL client mysql is now by default started with the option --no-named-commands (-g). This option can be disabled with --enable-named-commands (-G). This may cause incompatibility problems in some cases--for example, in SQL scripts that use named commands without a semicolon. Long format commands still work from the first line.
  • If you want your mysqldump files to be compatible between MySQL Version 3.22 and Version 3.23, you should not use the --opt or --all option to mysqldump.

Table Changes:

  • All tables that use the tis620 character set must be fixed with myisamchk -r or REPAIR TABLE.
  • If you are using the german character sort order for ISAM tables, you must repair them with isamchk -r, because we have made some changes in the sort order.

SQL Changes:

  • If you do a DROP DATABASE on a symbolically linked database, both the link and the original database are deleted. (This didn't happen in 3.22 because configure didn't detect the availability of the readlink() system call.)
  • OPTIMIZE TABLE now works only for MyISAM tables. For other table types, you can use ALTER TABLE to optimize the table. During OPTIMIZE TABLE, the table is now locked to prevent it from being used by other threads.
  • Date functions that work on parts of dates (like MONTH()) will now return 0 for 0000-00-00 dates. (In MySQL 3.22, these functions returned NULL.)
  • The default return type of IF() now depends on both arguments and not only the first argument.
  • AUTO_INCREMENT columns should not be used to store negative numbers. The reason for this is that negative numbers caused problems when wrapping from -1 to 0. You should not store 0 in AUTO_INCREMENT columns, either; CHECK TABLE will complain about 0 values because they may change if you dump and restore the table. AUTO_INCREMENT for MyISAM tables is now handled at a lower level and is much faster than before. In addition, for MyISAM tables, old numbers are no longer reused, even if you delete rows from the table.
  • CASE, DELAYED, ELSE, END, FULLTEXT, INNER, RIGHT, THEN, and WHEN are now reserved words.
  • FLOAT(X) is now a true floating-point type and not a value with a fixed number of decimals.
  • When declaring columns using a DECIMAL(length,dec) type, the length argument no longer includes a place for the sign or the decimal point.
  • A TIME string must now be of one of the following formats: [[[DAYS] [H]H:]MM:]SS[.fraction] or [[[[[H]H]H]H]MM]SS[.fraction].
  • LIKE now compares strings using the same character comparison rules as for the = operator. If you require the old behavior, you can compile MySQL with the CXXFLAGS=-DLIKE_CMP_TOUPPER flag.
  • REGEXP is now case-insensitive if neither of the strings are binary strings.
  • When you check or repair MyISAM (`.MYI') tables, you should use the CHECK TABLE statement or the myisamchk command. For ISAM (`.ISM') tables, use the isamchk command.
  • Check all your calls to DATE_FORMAT() to make sure there is a `%' before each format character. (MySQL Version 3.22 and later already allowed this syntax.)
  • In MySQL Version 3.22, the output of SELECT DISTINCT ... was almost always sorted. In Version 3.23, you must use GROUP BY or ORDER BY to obtain sorted output.
  • SUM() now returns NULL instead of 0 if there are no matching rows. This is required by standard SQL.
  • An AND or OR with NULL values will now return NULL instead of 0. This mostly affects queries that use NOT on an AND/OR expression as NOT NULL = NULL.
  • LPAD() and RPAD() now shorten the result string if it's longer than the length argument.

C API Changes:

  • mysql_fetch_fields_direct() is now a function (it used to be a macro) and it returns a pointer to a MYSQL_FIELD instead of a MYSQL_FIELD.
  • mysql_num_fields() can no longer be used on a MYSQL* object (it's now a function that takes a MYSQL_RES* value as an argument). With a MYSQL* object, you should now use mysql_field_count() instead.

2.5.5 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to 3.22

Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between versions 3.21 and 3.22. The only pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to store the date. You can't access these new columns from an old version of mysqld.

When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:

  • After installing MySQL Version 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need to use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you try to use ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or DROP INDEX. The procedure for updating the grant tables is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.
  • The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client program that calls this function, you must place a 0 for the new db argument (or recode the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_init() before calling mysql_real_connect(). This change was done to allow the new mysql_options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.
  • The mysqld variable key_buffer has been renamed to key_buffer_size, but you can still use the old name in your startup files.

2.5.6 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21

If you are running a version older than Version 3.20.28 and want to switch to Version 3.21, you need to do the following:

You can start the mysqld Version 3.21 server with the --old-protocol option to use it with clients from a Version 3.20 distribution. In this case, the server uses the old pre-3.21 password() checking rather than the new method. Also, the new client function mysql_errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR. The function does work for client errors.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the following changes:

  • All client code must be recompiled. If you are using ODBC, you must get the new MyODBC 2.x driver.
  • The scripts/add_long_password script must be run to convert the Password field in the mysql.user table to CHAR(16).
  • All passwords must be reassigned in the mysql.user table (to get 62-bit rather than 31-bit passwords).
  • The table format hasn't changed, so you don't have to convert any tables.

MySQL Version 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than Version 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least Version 3.20.28 and then upgrade to Version 3.21.

The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with 3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will be unable to connect and will issue the following error message:

ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9

The Perl DBI interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, and password (note that the user and password arguments have changed places).

The following changes may affect queries in old applications:

  • HAVING must now be specified before any ORDER BY clause.
  • The parameters to LOCATE() have been swapped.
  • There are some new reserved words. The most notable are DATE, TIME, and TIMESTAMP.

2.5.7 Upgrading MySQL under Windows

When upgrading MySQL under Windows, please follow these steps:

  1. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL.
  2. Choose a time of day with low usage, where a maintenance break is acceptable.
  3. Alert the users that still are active about the maintenance break.
  4. Stop the running MySQL Server (for example, with NET STOP MySQL or with the Services utility if you are running MySQL as a service, or with mysqladmin shutdown otherwise).
  5. Exit the WinMySQLAdmin program if it is running.
  6. Run the installation script of the Windows distribution, by clicking the "Install" button in WinZip and following the installation steps of the script. Important note: Early alpha Windows distributions for MySQL 4.1 do not contain any installer program. See section 2.2.1.2 Installing a Windows Binary Distribution for instructions on how to install such a distribution.
  7. You may either overwrite your old MySQL installation (usually located at `C:\mysql'), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql4. Overwriting the old installation is recommended.
  8. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.
  9. Update the grant tables. The procedure is described in section 2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

Possible error situations:

A system error has occurred.
System error 1067 has occurred.
The process terminated unexpectedly.

This error means that your `my.cnf' file (by default `C:\my.cnf') contains an option that cannot be recognized by MySQL. You can verify that this is the case by trying to restart MySQL with the `my.cnf' file renamed, for example, to `my_cnf.old' to prevent the server from using it. Once you have verified it, you need to identify which option is the culprit. Create a new `my.cnf' file and move parts of the old file to it (restarting the server after you move each part) until you determine which option causes server startup to fail.

2.5.8 Upgrading the Grant Tables

Some releases introduce changes to the structure of the grant tables (the tables in the mysql database) to add new privileges or features. To make sure that your grant tables are current when you update to a new version of MySQL, you should update your grant tables as well.

On Unix or Unix-like systems, update the grant tables by running the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables

You must run this script while the server is running. It attempts to connect to the server running on the local host as root. If your root account requires a password, indicate the password on the command line. For MySQL 4.1 and up, specify the password like this:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables --password=root_password

Prior to MySQL 4.1, specify the password like this:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables root_password

The mysql_fix_privilege_tables script performs any actions necessary to convert your grant tables to the current format. You may see some Duplicate column name warnings as it runs; they can be ignored.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

On Windows systems, there isn't an easy way to update the grant tables until MySQL 4.0.15. From version 4.0.15 on, MySQL distributions include a mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql SQL script that you can run using the mysql client. If your MySQL installation is located at `C:\mysql', the commands look like this:

C:\mysql\bin> mysql -u root -p mysql
mysql> SOURCE C:\mysql\scripts\mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql

If your installation is located in some other directory, adjust the pathnames appropriately.

The mysql command will prompt you for the root password; enter it when prompted.

As with the Unix procedure, you may see some Duplicate column name warnings as mysql processes the statements in the mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql script; they can be ignored.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

2.5.9 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine

If you are using MySQL Version 3.23 or later, you can copy the `.frm', `.MYI', and `.MYD' files for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See section 15.1 The MyISAM Storage Engine.

The MySQL ISAM data and index files (`.ISD' and `*.ISM', respectively) are architecture-dependent and in some cases operating system-dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or operating system than your current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use mysqldump instead.

By default, mysqldump will create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt to take advantage of any optimizations that result in a dump file that is smaller and can be processed faster.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name \
        | mysql -h 'other hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other hostname' --opt --compress db_name \
        | mysql db_name

You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz

(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For big tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Also, don't forget to copy the mysql database because that's where the grant tables (user, db, host) are stored. You may have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.6 Operating System Specific Notes

2.6.1 Linux Notes

This section discusses issues that have been found to occur on Linux. The first few subsections describe general operating system-related issues, problems that can occur when using binary or source distributions, and post-installation issues. The remaining subsections discuss problems that occur with Linux on specific platforms.

Note that most of these problems occur on older versions of Linux. If you are running a recent version, you likely will see none of them.

2.6.1.1 Linux Operating System Notes

MySQL needs at least Linux Version 2.0.

Warning: We have seen some strange problems with Linux 2.2.14 and MySQL on SMP systems. We also have reports from some MySQL users that they have encountered serious stability problems using MySQL with kernel 2.2.14. If you are using this kernel, you should upgrade to 2.2.19 (or newer) or to a 2.4 kernel. If you have a multiple-CPU box, then you should seriously consider using 2.4 as this will give you a significant speed boost. Your system also will be more stable.

When using LinuxThreads you will see a minimum of three mysqld processes running. These are in fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one thread to handle connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.

2.6.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes

The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.

The binary release is linked with -static, which means you do not normally need to worry about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads, either. A program linked with -static is slightly larger than a dynamically linked program, but also slightly faster (3-5%). However, one problem with a statically linked program is that you can't use user-defined functions (UDFs). If you are going to write or use UDFs (this is something for C or C++ programmers only), you must compile MySQL yourself using dynamic linking.

A known issue with binary distributions is that on older Linux systems that use libc (such as Red Hat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname resolution. If your system uses libc rather than glibc2, you probably will encounter some difficulties with hostname resolution and getpwnam(). This happens because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to implement hostname resolution and getpwent(), even when compiled with -static). These problems manifest themselves in two ways:

  • You probably will see the following error message when you run mysql_install_db:
    Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up
    
    You can deal with this by executing mysql_install_db --force, which will not execute the resolveip test in mysql_install_db. The downside is that you can't use hostnames in the grant tables: Except for localhost, you must use IP numbers instead. If you are using an old version of MySQL that doesn't support --force, you must manually remove the resolveip test in mysql_install using an editor.
  • You also may see the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user option:
    getpwnam: No such file or directory
    
    To work around this, start mysqld with su rather than by specifying the --user option. This causes the system itself to change the user ID of the mysqld process so that mysqld need not do so.

Another solution, which solves both problems, is to not use a binary distribution. Get a MySQL source distribution (an RPM or the tar.gz distribution) and install that instead.

On some Linux 2.2 versions, you may get the error Resource temporarily unavailable when clients make a lot of new connections to a mysqld server over TCP/IP. The problem is that Linux has a delay between the time that you close a TCP/IP socket and the time that the system actually frees it. There is only room for a finite number of TCP/IP slots, so you will encounter the resource-unavailable error if clients attempt too many new TCP/IP connections during a short time. For example, you may see the error when you run the MySQL `test-connect' benchmark over TCP/IP.

We have inquired about this problem a few times on different Linux mailing lists but have never been able to find a suitable resolution. The only known ``fix'' is for the clients to use persistent connections, or, if you are running the database server and clients on the same machine, to use Unix socket file connections rather than TCP/IP connections.

2.6.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes

The following notes regarding glibc apply only to the situation when you build MySQL yourself. If you are running Linux on an x86 machine, in most cases it is much better for you to just use our binary. We link our binaries against the best patched version of glibc we can come up with and with the best compiler options, in an attempt to make it suitable for a high-load server. For a typical user, even for setups with a lot of concurrent connections or tables exceeding the 2GB limit, our binary is the best choice in most cases. After reading the following text, if you are in doubt about what to do, try our binary first to see whether it meets your needs. If you discover that our binary is not good enough, then you may want to try your own build. In that case, we would appreciate a note about it, so we can build a better binary next time.

MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn't have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. You can get LinuxThreads at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/os-linux.php.

Note that glibc versions before and including Version 2.1.1 have a fatal bug in pthread_mutex_timedwait() handling, which is used when you issue INSERT DELAYED statements. We recommend that you not use INSERT DELAYED before upgrading glibc.

Note that Linux kernel and the LinuxThread library can by default only have 1024 threads. If you plan to have more than 1000 concurrent connections, you will need to make some changes to LinuxThreads:

  • Increase PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX in `sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/bits/local_lim.h' to 4096 and decrease STACK_SIZE in `linuxthreads/internals.h' to 256KB. The paths are relative to the root of glibc. (Note that MySQL will not be stable with around 600-1000 connections if STACK_SIZE is the default of 2MB.)
  • Recompile LinuxThreads to produce a new `libpthread.a' library, and relink MySQL against it.

The page http://www.volano.com/linuxnotes.php contains additional information about circumventing thread limits in LinuxThreads.

There is another issue that greatly hurts MySQL performance, especially on SMP systems. The mutex implementation in LinuxThreads in glibc 2.1 is very bad for programs with many threads that hold the mutex only for a short time. This produces a paradoxical result: If you link MySQL against an unmodified LinuxThreads, removing processors from an SMP actually improves MySQL performance in many cases. We have made a patch available for glibc 2.1.3 to correct this behavior (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.1-patch).

With glibc 2.2.2, MySQL version 3.23.36 will use the adaptive mutex, which is much better than even the patched one in glibc 2.1.3. Be warned, however, that under some conditions, the current mutex code in glibc 2.2.2 overspins, which hurts MySQL performance. The likelihood that this condition will occur can be reduced by renicing the mysqld process to the highest priority. We have also been able to correct the overspin behavior with a patch, available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. It combines the correction of overspin, maximum number of threads, and stack spacing all in one. You will need to apply it in the linuxthreads directory with patch -p0 </tmp/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. We hope it will be included in some form in future releases of glibc 2.2. In any case, if you link against glibc 2.2.2, you still need to correct STACK_SIZE and PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX. We hope that the defaults will be corrected to some more acceptable values for high-load MySQL setup in the future, so that the commands needed to produce your own build can be reduced to ./configure; make; make install.

We recommend that you use these patches to build a special static version of libpthread.a and use it only for statically linking against MySQL. We know that the patches are safe for MySQL and significantly improve its performance, but we cannot say anything about other applications. If you link other applications that require LinuxThreads against the patched static version of the library, or build a patched shared version and install it on your system, you are doing it at your own risk.

If you experience any strange problems during the installation of MySQL, or with some common utilities hanging, it is very likely that they are either library or compiler related. If this is the case, using our binary will resolve them.

If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:

ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory

This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

  • Link clients with the -Wl,r/full-path-to-libmysqlclient.so flag rather than with -Lpath).
  • Copy libmysqclient.so to `/usr/lib'.
  • Add the pathname of the directory where `libmysqlclient.so' is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.

If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc/FCC), you will have some problems compiling MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented. The following configure line should work with fcc/FCC:

CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE \
    -DCONST=const -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO" \
CXX=FCC CXXFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib \
    -K omitfp -K preex --no_exceptions --no_rtti -D_GNU_SOURCE \
    -DCONST=const -Dalloca=__builtin_alloca -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO \
    '-D_EXTERN_INLINE=static __inline'" \
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
    --with-low-memory

2.6.1.4 Linux Post-installation Notes

mysql.server can be found in the `support-files' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as `/etc/init.d/mysql' for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See section 2.4.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

If MySQL can't open enough files or connections, it may be that you haven't configured Linux to handle enough files.

In Linux 2.2 and onward, you can check the number of allocated file handles as follows:

shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/super-max

If you have more than 16MB of memory, you should add something like the following to your init scripts (for example, `/etc/init.d/boot.local' on SuSE Linux):

echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
echo 8192 > /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
echo 1024 > /proc/sys/fs/super-max

You can also run the echo commands from the command line as root, but these settings will be lost the next time your computer restarts.

Alternatively, you can set these parameters on startup by using the sysctl tool, which is used by many Linux distributions (SuSE has added it as well, beginning with SuSE Linux 8.0). Just put the following values into a file named `/etc/sysctl.conf':

# Increase some values for MySQL
fs.file-max = 65536
fs.dquot-max = 8192
fs.super-max = 1024

You should also add the following to `/etc/my.cnf':

[mysqld_safe]
open-files-limit=8192

This should allow the server a limit of 8192 for the combined number of connections and open files.

The STACK_SIZE constant in LinuxThreads controls the spacing of thread stacks in the address space. It needs to be large enough so that there will be plenty of room for the stack of each individual thread, but small enough to keep the stack of some threads from running into the global mysqld data. Unfortunately, as we have experimentally discovered, the Linux implementation of mmap() will successfully unmap an already mapped region if you ask it to map out an address already in use, zeroing out the data on the entire page, instead of returning an error. So, the safety of mysqld or any other threaded application depends on ``gentlemanly'' behavior of the code that creates threads. The user must take measures to make sure the number of running threads at any time is sufficiently low for thread stacks to stay away from the global heap. With mysqld, you should enforce this behavior by setting a reasonable value for the max_connections variable.

If you build MySQL yourself, you can patch LinuxThreads for better stack use. See section 2.6.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes. If you do not want to patch LinuxThreads, you should set max_connections to a value no higher than 500. It should be even less if you have a large key buffer, large heap tables, or some other things that make mysqld allocate a lot of memory, or if you are running a 2.2 kernel with a 2GB patch. If you are using our binary or RPM version 3.23.25 or later, you can safely set max_connections at 1500, assuming no large key buffer or heap tables with lots of data. The more you reduce STACK_SIZE in LinuxThreads the more threads you can safely create. We recommend values between 128KB and 256KB.

If you use a lot of concurrent connections, you may suffer from a ``feature'' in the 2.2 kernel that attempts to prevent fork bomb attacks by penalizing a process for forking or cloning a child. This causes MySQL not to scale well as you increase the number of concurrent clients. On single-CPU systems, we have seen this manifested as very slow thread creation: It may take a long time to connect to MySQL (as long as 1 minute), and it may take just as long to shut it down. On multiple-CPU systems, we have observed a gradual drop in query speed as the number of clients increases. In the process of trying to find a solution, we have received a kernel patch from one of our users who claimed it made a lot of difference for his site. The patch is available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/linux-fork.patch. We have now done rather extensive testing of this patch on both development and production systems. It has significantly improved MySQL performance without causing any problems and we now recommend it to our users who still run high-load servers on 2.2 kernels.

This issue has been fixed in the 2.4 kernel, so if you are not satisfied with the current performance of your system, rather than patching your 2.2 kernel, it might be easier to upgrade to 2.4. On SMP systems, upgrading also will give you a nice SMP boost in addition to fixing the fairness bug.

We have tested MySQL on the 2.4 kernel on a 2-CPU machine and found MySQL scales much better. There was virtually no slowdown on query throughput all the way up to 1000 clients, and the MySQL scaling factor (computed as the ratio of maximum throughput to the throughput for one client) was 180%. We have observed similar results on a 4-CPU system: Virtually no slowdown as the number of clients was increased up to 1000, and a 300% scaling factor. Based on these results, for a high-load SMP server using a 2.2 kernel, we definitely recommend upgrading to the 2.4 kernel at this point.

We have discovered that it is essential to run mysqld process with the highest possible priority on the 2.4 kernel to achieve maximum performance. This can be done by adding a renice -20 $$ command to mysqld_safe. In our testing on a 4-CPU machine, increasing the priority gave 60% throughput increase with 400 clients.

We are currently also trying to collect more information on how well MySQL performs on 2.4 kernel on 4-way and 8-way systems. If you have access such a system and have done some benchmarks, please send an email message to benchmarks@mysql.com with the results. We will review them for inclusion in the manual.

If you see a dead mysqld server process with ps, this usually means that you have found a bug in MySQL or you have a corrupted table. See section A.4.1 What to Do if MySQL Keeps Crashing.

To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file size by adding ulimit -c 1000000 to mysqld_safe or starting mysqld_safe with --core-file-size=1000000. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

2.6.1.5 Linux x86 Notes

MySQL requires libc Version 5.4.12 or newer. It's known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc Version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc RPMs from Red Hat, so if you have problems, check whether there are any updates. The glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.

If you are using Red Hat 8.0 or a new glibc 2.2.x library, you may see mysqld die in gethostbyaddr(). This happens because the new glibc library requires a stack size greater than 128KB for this call. To fix the problem, start mysqld with the --thread-stack=192K option. (Use -O thread_stack=192K before MySQL 4.) This stack size is now the default on MySQL 4.0.10 and above, so you should not see the problem.

If you are using gcc 3.0 and above to compile MySQL, you must install the libstdc++v3 library before compiling MySQL; if you don't do this, you will get an error about a missing __cxa_pure_virtual symbol during linking.

On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:

Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the
/usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Just do what the error message says. Add an extra underscore to the _P macro name that has only one underscore, then try again.

You may get some warnings when compiling. Those shown here can be ignored:

mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function `void init_signals()':
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'
mysqld.cc: In function `void * signal_hand(void *)':
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'

If mysqld always dumps core when it starts, the problem may be that you have an old `/lib/libc.a'. Try renaming it, then remove `sql/mysqld' and do a new make install and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations.

If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your `libg++.a' is not installed correctly:

/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function `_IO_putc':
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of `_IO_putc'

You can avoid using `libg++.a' by running configure like this:

shell> CXX=gcc ./configure

If mysqld crashes immediately and you are running Red Hat Version 5.0 with a version of glibc older than 2.0.7-5, you should make sure you have installed all glibc patches. There is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives. Links to the mail archives are available online at http://lists.mysql.com/.

2.6.1.6 Linux SPARC Notes

In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that the SHOW DATABASES statement always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing HAVE_READDIR_R from `config.h' after configuring and before compiling.

2.6.1.7 Linux Alpha Notes

MySQL Version 3.23.12 is the first MySQL version that is tested on Linux-Alpha. If you plan to use MySQL on Linux-Alpha, you should ensure that you have this version or newer.

We have tested MySQL on Alpha with our benchmarks and test suite, and it appears to work nicely.

We currently build the MySQL binary packages on SuSE Linux 7.0 for AXP, kernel 2.4.4-SMP, Compaq C compiler (V6.2-505) and Compaq C++ compiler (V6.3-006) on a Compaq DS20 machine with an Alpha EV6 processor.

You can find the preceding compilers at http://www.support.compaq.com/alpha-tools/. By using these compilers rather than gcc, we get about 9-14% better MySQL performance.

Note that until MySQL version 3.23.52 and 4.0.2, we optimized the binary for the current CPU only (by using the -fast compile option). This means that for older versions, you can use our Alpha binaries only if you have an Alpha EV6 processor.

For all following releases, we added the -arch generic flag to our compile options, which makes sure the binary runs on all Alpha processors. We also compile statically to avoid library problems. The configure command looks like this:

CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx \
CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared

If you want to use egcs, the following configure line worked for us:

CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

Some known problems when running MySQL on Linux-Alpha:

  • Debugging threaded applications like MySQL will not work with gdb 4.18. You should use gdb 5.1 instead!
  • If you try linking mysqld statically when using gcc, the resulting image will dump core at startup time. In other words, don't use --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static with gcc.

2.6.1.8 Linux PowerPC Notes

MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).

2.6.1.9 Linux MIPS Notes

To get MySQL to work on Qube2 (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries. glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work. You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs-1.0.2-9, gcc 2.95.2 or newer).

2.6.1.10 Linux IA-64 Notes

To get MySQL to compile on Linux IA-64, we use the following configure command for building with gcc 2.96:

CC=gcc \
CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    "--with-comment=Official MySQL binary" \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex

On IA-64, the MySQL client binaries use shared libraries. This means that if you install our binary distribution at a location other than `/usr/local/mysql', you need to add the path of the directory where you have `libmysqlclient.so' installed either to the `/etc/ld.so.conf' file or to the value of your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.

See section A.3.1 Problems When Linking with the MySQL Client Library.

2.6.2 Mac OS X Notes

On Mac OS X, tar cannot handle long filenames. If you need to unpack a `.tar.gz' distribution, use gnutar instead.

2.6.2.1 Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin)

MySQL should work without any problems on Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin).

Our binary for Mac OS X is compiled on Darwin 6.3 with the following configure line:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --enable-local-infile --disable-shared

See section 2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X.

2.6.2.2 Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody)

For current versions of Mac OS X Server, no operating system changes are necessary before compiling MySQL. Compiling for the Server platform is the same as for the client version of Mac OS X. (However, note that MySQL comes preinstalled on Mac OS X Server, so you need not build it yourself.)

For older versions (Mac OS X Server 1.2, a.k.a. Rhapsody), you must first install a pthread package before trying to configure MySQL.

See section 2.2.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X.

2.6.3 Solaris Notes

On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked! Solaris tar can't handle long file names, so you may see an error like this when you unpack MySQL:

x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,\
informix,ms-sql,mysql,oracle,solid,sybase, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
tar: directory checksum error

In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a precompiled copy for Solaris at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/os-solaris.php.

Sun native threads only work on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For Version 2.4 and earlier, MySQL will automatically use MIT-pthreads. See section 2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get the following error from configure, it means that you have something wrong with your compiler installation:

checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not
run test programs while cross compiling

In this case you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able to solve this problem by inserting the following row into the `config.cache' file:

ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls='no'}

If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is gcc 2.95.2 or 3.2. You can find this at http://gcc.gnu.org/. Note that egcs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don't work reliably on SPARC!

The recommended configure line when using gcc 2.95.2 is:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory \
--enable-assembler

If you have an UltraSPARC system, you can get 4% better performance by adding -mcpu=v8 -Wa,-xarch=v8plusa to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables.

If you have Sun's Forte 5.0 (or newer) compiler, you can run configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

To create a 64-bit binary with Sun's Forte compiler, use the following configuration options:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt -xarch=v9" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -xarch=v9" ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

To create a 64bit Solaris binary using gcc, add -m64 to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. Note that this works only with MySQL 4.0 and up - MySQL 3.23 does not include the required modifications to support this.

In the MySQL benchmarks, we got a 4% speedup on an UltraSPARC when using Forte 5.0 in 32-bit mode compared to using gcc 3.2 with -mcpu flags.

If you create a 64-bit mysqld binary, it is 4% slower than the 32-bit binary, but can handle more threads and memory.

If you get a problem with fdatasync or sched_yield, you can fix this by adding LIBS=-lrt to the configure line

For older compilers than WorkShop 5.3, you may have to edit the configure script to change this line:

#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1

To this:

#if !defined(__STDC__)

If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can't compile with the Solaris `pthread.h' header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).

If mysqld issues the following error message when you run it, you have tried to compile MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the multi-thread option (-mt):

libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held

Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and recompile.

If you are using the SFW version of gcc (which comes with Solaris 8), you must add `/opt/sfw/lib' to the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH before running configure.

If you are using the gcc available from sunfreeware.com, you may have many problems. To avoid this, you should recompile gcc and GNU binutils on the machine where you will be running them.

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is not configured for your version of Solaris:

shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF  -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function `signal_hand':
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function `sigwait'

The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of gcc and compile it with your current gcc compiler! At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads, and possibly other programs!

Solaris doesn't provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so you can't compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get one of the following errors:

ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found
undefined reference to `dlopen'
cannot find -lrt

If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:

ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory

This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

  • Link clients with the -Wl,r/full-path-to-libmysqlclient.so flag rather than with -Lpath).
  • Copy libmysqclient.so to `/usr/lib'.
  • Add the pathname of the directory where `libmysqlclient.so' is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable before running your client.

If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz when you don't have zlib installed, you have two options:

  • If you want to be able to use the compressed communication protocol, you need to get and install zlib from ftp.gnu.org.
  • Run configure with the --with-named-z-libs=no option when building MySQL.

If you are using gcc and have problems with loading user-defined functions (UDFs) into MySQL, try adding -lgcc to the link line for the UDF.

If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy `support-files/mysql.server' to `/etc/init.d' and create a symbolic link to it named `/etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server'.

If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the MySQL log:

Error in accept: Protocol error

You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this. (Use -O back_log=50 before MySQL 4.)

Solaris doesn't support core files for setuid() applications, so you can't get a core file from mysqld if you are using the --user option.

2.6.3.1 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes

You can normally use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7 and 2.8. Most of the Solaris 2.6 issues also apply for Solaris 2.7 and 2.8.

MySQL Version 3.23.4 and above should be able to detect new versions of Solaris automatically and enable workarounds for the following problems!

Solaris 2.7 / 2.8 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when you use gcc:

/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: `getwc' redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition

If this occurs, you can fix the problem by copying /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcc-lib/os/gcc-version/include and changing line 41 from this:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)

To this:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)

Alternatively, you can edit `/usr/include/widec.h' directly. Either way, after you make the fix, you should remove `config.cache' and run configure again!

If you get the following errors when you run make, it's because configure didn't detect the `curses.h' file (probably because of the error in `/usr/include/widec.h'):

In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before `,'
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before `;'

The solution to this is to do one of the following:

  • Configure with CFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H CXXFLAGS=-DHAVE_CURSES_H ./configure.
  • Edit `/usr/include/widec.h' as indicated in the preceding discussion and re-run configure.
  • Remove the #define HAVE_TERM line from the `config.h' file and run make again.

If your linker can't find -lz when linking client programs, the problem is probably that your `libz.so' file is installed in `/usr/local/lib'. You can fix this by one of the following methods:

  • Add `/usr/local/lib' to LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
  • Add a link to `libz.so' from `/lib'.
  • If you are using Solaris 8, you can install the optional zlib from your Solaris 8 CD distribution.
  • Run configure with the --with-named-z-libs=no option when building MySQL.

2.6.3.2 Solaris x86 Notes

On Solaris 8 on x86, mysqld will dump core if you remove the debug symbols using strip.

If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps under load, you should use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.

If this doesn't help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under gdb. See section D.1.3 Debugging mysqld under gdb.

2.6.4 BSD Notes

This section provides information about using MySQL on BSD variants.

2.6.4.1 FreeBSD Notes

FreeBSD 4.x or newer is recommended for running MySQL, because the thread package is much more integrated. To get a secure and stable system, you should use only FreeBSD kernels that are marked -RELEASE.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

  • A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your version of FreeBSD.
  • Automatic configuration and build.
  • Startup scripts installed in `/usr/local/etc/rc.d'.
  • The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.
  • The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your machine.

It is recommended you use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x, and native threads on Versions 3 and up. It is possible to run with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions but you may encounter problems shutting down mysqld.

Unfortunately, certain function calls on FreeBSD are not yet fully thread-safe. Most notably, this includes the gethostbyname() function, which is used by MySQL to convert hostnames into IP addresses. Under certain circumstances, the mysqld process will suddenly cause 100% CPU load and will be unresponsive. If you encounter this problem, try to start up MySQL using the --skip-name-resolve option.

Alternatively, you can link MySQL on FreeBSD 4.x against the LinuxThreads library, which avoids a few of the problems that the native FreeBSD thread implementation has. For a very good comparison of LinuxThreads vs. native threads, see Jeremy Zawodny's article FreeBSD or Linux for your MySQL Server? at http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog/archives/000697.php.

A known problem when using LinuxThreads on FreeBSD is that wait_timeout is not working (probably a signal handling problem in FreeBSD/LinuxThreads). This is supposed to be fixed in FreeBSD 5.0. The symptom is that persistent connections can hang for a very long time without getting closed down.

The MySQL build process require GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

The recommended way to compile and install MySQL on FreeBSD with gcc (2.95.2 and up) is:

shell> CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2 -fno-strength-reduce" \
           CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions \
           -felide-constructors -fno-strength-reduce" \
           ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
shell> gmake
shell> gmake install
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> bin/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/mysqld_safe &

If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads notes. See section 2.3.5 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get an error from make install that it can't find `/usr/include/pthreads', configure didn't detect that you need MIT-pthreads. To fix this problem, remove `config.cache', then re-run configure with the --with-mit-threads option.

Be sure your name resolver setup is correct. Otherwise, you may experience resolver delays or failures when connecting to mysqld. Also make sure that the localhost entry in the `/etc/hosts' file is correct. The file should start with a line similar to this:

127.0.0.1       localhost localhost.your.domain

FreeBSD is known to have a very low default file handle limit. See section A.2.18 File Not Found. Start the server by using the --open-files-limit option for mysqld_safe, or raise the limits for the mysqld user in `/etc/login.conf' and rebuild it with cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf. Also be sure you set the appropriate class for this user in the password file if you are not using the default (use chpass mysqld-user-name). See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

If you have a lot of memory, you should consider rebuilding the kernel to allow MySQL to use more than 512MB of RAM. Take a look at option MAXDSIZ in the LINT config file for more information.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section E Environment Variables.

2.6.4.2 NetBSD Notes

To compile on NetBSD you need GNU make. Otherwise, the build process will fail when make tries to run lint on C++ files.

2.6.4.3 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes

On OpenBSD Version 2.5, you can compile MySQL with native threads with the following options:

CFLAGS=-pthread CXXFLAGS=-pthread ./configure --with-mit-threads=no

2.6.4.4 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes

Our users have reported that OpenBSD 2.8 has a threading bug which causes problems with MySQL. The OpenBSD Developers have fixed the problem, but as of January 25th, 2001, it's only available in the ``-current'' branch. The symptoms of this threading bug are: slow response, high load, high CPU usage, and crashes.

If you get an error like Error in accept:: Bad file descriptor or error 9 when trying to open tables or directories, the problem is probably that you haven't allocated enough file descriptors for MySQL.

In this case, try starting mysqld_safe as root with the following options:

shell> mysqld_safe --user=mysql --open-files-limit=2048 &

2.6.4.5 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory is too low:

item_func.h: In method
`Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)':
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1

Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for configure to be able to compile `sql_yacc.cc'.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section E Environment Variables.

2.6.4.6 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes

Upgrade to BSD/OS Version 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.

Use the following command when configuring MySQL:

shell> env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
           --without-perl \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

The following is also known to work:

shell> env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying any locations.

If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-thread-priority option to mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority; on BSDI Version 3.1, this gives better performance (at least until BSDI fixes their thread scheduler).

If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

2.6.4.7 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes

BSDI Version 4.x has some thread-related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you should install all thread-related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.

On some BSDI Version 4.x systems, you may get problems with shared libraries. The symptom is that you can't execute any client programs, for example, mysqladmin. In this case you need to reconfigure not to use shared libraries with the --disable-shared option to configure.

Some customers have had problems on BSDI 4.0.1 that the mysqld binary after a while can't open tables. This is because some library/system related bug causes mysqld to change current directory without asking for this!

The fix is to either upgrade MySQL to at least version 3.23.34 or, after running configure, remove the line #define HAVE_REALPATH from config.h before running make.

Note that this means that you can't symbolically link a database directories to another database directory or symbolic link a table to another database on BSDI! (Making a symbolic link to another disk is okay).

2.6.5 Other Unix Notes

2.6.5.1 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes

There are a couple of small problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code!

We recommend using gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don't use high optimization flags (like -O6) as they may not be safe on HP-UX.

The following configure line should work with gcc 2.95:

CFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -fpic" \
CXXFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti" \
CXX=gcc \
./configure --with-pthread \
    --with-named-thread-libs='-ldce' \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

The following configure line should work with gcc 3.1:

CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --enable-local-infile  --with-pthread \
    --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC
    --disable-shared

2.6.5.2 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes

For HP-UX Version 11.x, we recommend MySQL Version 3.23.15 or later.

Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:

PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative

This will solve the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept() in threaded applications.

If you are using gcc 2.95.1 on an unpatched HP-UX 11.x system, you will get the error:

In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:11,
                 from ../include/global.h:125,
                 from mysql_priv.h:15,
                 from item.cc:19:
/usr/include/sys/unistd.h:184: declaration of C function ...
/usr/include/sys/pthread.h:440: previous declaration ...
In file included from item.h:306,
                 from mysql_priv.h:158,
                 from item.cc:19:

The problem is that HP-UX doesn't define pthreads_atfork() consistently. It has conflicting prototypes in `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h':184 and `/usr/include/sys/pthread.h':440 (details below).

One solution is to copy `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h' into `mysql/include' and edit `unistd.h' and change it to match the definition in `pthread.h'. Change this line:

extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(), void (*parent)(),
                                          void (*child)());

To look like this:

extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
                                          void (*child)(void));

After making the change, the following configure line should work:

CFLAGS="-fomit-frame-pointer -O3 -fpic" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

If you are using MySQL 4.0.5 with the HP-UX compiler, you can use the following command (which has been tested with cc B.11.11.04):

CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure \
    --with-extra-character-set=complex

You can ignore any errors of the following type:

aCC: warning 901: unknown option: `-3': use +help for online
documentation

If you get the following error from configure, verify that you don't have the path to the K&R compiler before the path to the HP-UX C and C++ compiler:

checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires a ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compiler).
Try gcc. See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Another reason for not being able to compile is that you didn't define the +DD64 flags as just described.

Another possibility for HP-UX 11 is to use MySQL binaries for HP-UX 10.20. We have received reports from some users that these binaries work fine on HP-UX 11.00. If you encounter problems, be sure to check your HP-UX patch level.

2.6.5.3 IBM-AIX notes

Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a number of variables need to be set before running configure. The following example uses the IBM compiler:

export CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
export CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
export CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
export CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS

./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
                --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
                --sysconfdir=/etc/mysql \
                --sbindir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --libexecdir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --enable-thread-safe-client \
                --enable-large-files

The preceding options are used to compile the MySQL distribution that can be found at http://www-frec.bull.com/.

If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the preceding configure line, you must also remove the -qstrict option (this is a limitation in the IBM C compiler).

If you are using gcc or egcs to compile MySQL, you must use the -fno-exceptions flag, because the exception handling in gcc/egcs is not thread-safe! (This is tested with egcs 1.1.) There are also some known problems with IBM's assembler that may cause it to generate bad code when used with gcc.

We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc 2.95 on AIX:

CC="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXX="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory

The -Wa,-many option is necessary for the compile to be successful. IBM is aware of this problem but is in no hurry to fix it because of the workaround that is available. We don't know if the -fno-exceptions is required with gcc 2.95, but because MySQL doesn't use exceptions and the option generates faster code, we recommend that you should always use it with egcs / gcc.

If you get a problem with assembler code, try changing the -mcpu=xxx option to match your CPU. Typically power2, power, or powerpc may need to be used. Alternatively, you might need to use 604 or 604e. We are not positive but suspect that power would likely be safe most of the time, even on a power2 machine.

If you don't know what your CPU is, execute a uname -m command. It will produce a string that looks like 000514676700, with a format of xxyyyyyymmss where xx and ss are always 00, yyyyyy is a unique system ID and mm is the ID of the CPU Planar. A chart of these values can be found at http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_doc_lib/cmds/aixcmds5/uname.htm. This will give you a machine type and a machine model you can use to determine what type of CPU you have.

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
       CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti \
       -DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug \
           --with-low-memory

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes getservbyname core dump. This is an AIX bug and should be reported to IBM.

For AIX 4.2.1 and gcc, you have to make the following changes.

After configuring, edit `config.h' and `include/my_config.h' and change the line that says this:

#define HAVE_SNPRINTF 1

to this:

#undef HAVE_SNPRINTF

And finally, in `mysqld.cc' you need to add a prototype for initgoups.

#ifdef _AIX41
extern "C" int initgroups(const char *,int);
#endif

If you need to allocate a lot of memory to the mysqld process, it's not enough to just use ulimit -d unlimited. You may also have to modify mysqld_safe to add a line something like this:

export LDR_CNTRL='MAXDATA=0x80000000'

You can find more about using a lot of memory at: http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/aixprggd/genprogc/lrg_prg_support.htm.

2.6.5.4 SunOS 4 Notes

On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL. This in turn means you will need GNU make.

Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use the following configure line to avoid this problem:

shell> ./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These may be ignored.

When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings. These may be ignored.

2.6.5.5 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)

If you are using egcs 1.1.2 on Digital Unix, you should upgrade to gcc 2.95.2, because egcs on DEC has some serious bugs!

When compiling threaded programs under Digital Unix, the documentation recommends using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the -lmach -lexc libraries (in addition to -lpthread). You should run configure something like this:

CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"

When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:

mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()':
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *' as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)'

You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors, not warnings.

If you start the server directly from the command line, you may have problems with it dying when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.) If so, try starting the server like this:

shell> nohup mysqld [options] &

nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal. Alternatively, start the server by running mysqld_safe, which invokes mysqld using nohup for you. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

If you get a problem when compiling `mysys/get_opt.c', just remove the #define _NO_PROTO line from the start of that file!

If you are using Compaq's CC compiler, the following configure line should work:

CC="cc -pthread"
CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all -arch host"
CXX="cxx -pthread"
CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all \
    -arch host -noexceptions -nortti"
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-low-memory \
    --enable-large-files \
    --enable-shared=yes \
    --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
gnumake

If you get a problem with libtool, when compiling with shared libraries as just shown, when linking mysql, you should be able to get around this by issuing:

cd mysql
/bin/sh ../libtool --mode=link cxx -pthread  -O3 -DDBUG_OFF \
    -O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
    -speculate all \ -arch host  -DUNDEF_HAVE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R \
    -o mysql  mysql.o readline.o sql_string.o completion_hash.o \
    ../readline/libreadline.a -lcurses \
    ../libmysql/.libs/libmysqlclient.so  -lm
cd ..
gnumake
gnumake install
scripts/mysql_install_db

2.6.5.6 Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes

If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you get problems with the `c_asm.h' file, you can create and use a 'dummy' `c_asm.h' file with:

touch include/c_asm.h
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

Note that the following problems with the ld program can be fixed by downloading the latest DEC (Compaq) patch kit from: http://ftp.support.compaq.com/public/unix/.

On OSF/1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital Unix V4.0 (Rev. 878)" the compiler had some strange behavior (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occurring while linking mysqld). On this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

With the Digital compiler "C++ V6.1-029", the following should work:

CC=cc -pthread
CFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
       -speculate all -arch host
CXX=cxx -pthread
CXXFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
         -speculate all -arch host -noexceptions -nortti
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/mysql/mysql \
            --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
            --with-named-thread-libs="-lmach -lexc -lc"

In some versions of OSF/1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line in `config.h' that defines 'HAVE_ALLOCA'.

The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h. This warning resulting from this can be ignored.

configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".

When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:

shell> CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ...

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       ./configure ...

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

With gcc 2.95.2, you will probably run into the following compile error:

sql_acl.cc:1456: Internal compiler error in `scan_region',
at except.c:2566
Please submit a full bug report.

To fix this you should change to the sql directory and do a ``cut and paste'' of the last gcc line, but change -O3 to -O0 (or add -O0 immediately after gcc if you don't have any -O option on your compile line). After this is done you can just change back to the top-level directly and run make again.

2.6.5.7 SGI Irix Notes

If you are using Irix Version 6.5.3 or newer mysqld will be able to create threads only if you run it as a user with CAP_SCHED_MGT privileges (like root) or give the mysqld server this privilege with the following shell command:

shell> chcap "CAP_SCHED_MGT+epi" /opt/mysql/libexec/mysqld

You may have to undefine some symbols in `config.h' after running configure and before compiling.

In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from `config.h' that define HAVE_ALLOC and HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn't work, remove the line from `config.h' that defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.

SGI recommends that you install all of the patches on this page as a set: http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_indigo.rps.php

At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and the latest libc rollup.

You definitely need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:

http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.php

If you get the something like the following error when compiling `mysql.cc':

"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084):
invalid combination of type

Type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:

shell> extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h \
           > include/curses.h
shell> make

There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, performance is slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a 2-to-10-fold increase in execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly understood problem with Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be fixed.

If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread

On Irix 6.5.11 with native Irix C and C++ compilers ver. 7.3.1.2, the following is reported to work

CC=cc CXX=CC CFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 -I/usr/local/include \
-L/usr/local/lib' CXXFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 \
-I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib' \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-innodb --with-berkeley-db \
    --with-libwrap=/usr/local \
    --with-named-curses-libs=/usr/local/lib/libncurses.a

2.6.5.8 SCO Notes

The current port is tested only on ``sco3.2v5.0.5'', ``sco3.2v5.0.6'' and ``sco3.2v5.0.7'' systems. There has also been a lot of progress on a port to ``sco 3.2v4.2''.

For the moment the recommended compiler on OpenServer is gcc 2.95.2. With this you should be able to compile MySQL with just:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure ... (options)
  1. For OpenServer 5.0.x you need to use gcc-2.95.2p1 or newer from the Skunkware. http://www.sco.com/skunkware/ and choose browser OpenServer packages or by ftp to ftp2.caldera.com in the `pub/skunkware/osr5/devtools/gcc' directory.
  2. You need the port of GCC 2.5.x for this product and the Development system. They are required on this version of SCO Unix. You cannot just use the GCC Dev system.
  3. You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found at http://moss.csc.ncsu.edu/~mueller/ftp/pub/PART/pthreads.tar.gz. You can also get a precompiled package from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/FSU-threads-3.5c.tar.gz.
  4. FSU Pthreads can be compiled with SCO Unix 4.2 with tcpip. Or OpenServer 3.0 or Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0), with the SCO Development System installed using a good port of GCC 2.5.x ODT or OS 3.0 you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.x There are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires the SCO Unix Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the linker that is needed.
  5. To build FSU Pthreads on your system, do the following:
    1. Run ./configure in the `threads/src' directory and select the SCO OpenServer option. This command copies `Makefile.SCO5' to `Makefile'.
    2. Run make.
    3. To install in the default `/usr/include' directory, login as root, then cd to the `thread/src' directory, and run make install.
  6. Remember to use GNU make when making MySQL.
  7. If you don't start mysqld_safe as root, you probably will get only the default 110 open files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.
  8. With SCO 3.2V5.0.5, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. You should also use gcc 2.95.2 or newer! The following configure command should work:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
    
  9. With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. The following configure command should work:
    shell> CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
           --with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"
    
    You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCO-specific include files at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz. You should unpack this file in the `include' directory of your MySQL source tree.

SCO development notes:

  • MySQL should automatically detect FSU Pthreads and link mysqld with -lgthreads -lsocket -lgthreads.
  • The SCO development libraries are re-entrant in FSU Pthreads. SCO claims that its libraries' functions are re-entrant, so they must be re-entrant with FSU Pthreads. FSU Pthreads on OpenServer tries to use the SCO scheme to make re-entrant libraries.
  • FSU Pthreads (at least the version at http://www.mysql.com/) comes linked with GNU malloc. If you encounter problems with memory usage, make sure that `gmalloc.o' is included in `libgthreads.a' and `libgthreads.so'.
  • In FSU Pthreads, the following system calls are pthreads-aware: read(), write(), getmsg(), connect(), accept(), select(), and wait().
  • The CSSA-2001-SCO.35.2 (the patch is listed in custom as erg711905-dscr_remap security patch (version 2.0.0) breaks FSU threads and makes mysqld unstable. You have to remove this one if you want to run mysqld on an OpenServer 5.0.6 machine.
  • SCO provides Operating Systems Patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5 for OpenServer 5.0.x
  • SCO provides security fixes and libsocket.so.2 at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenServer and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/sse for OpenServer 5.0.x
  • pre-OSR506 security fixes. Also, the telnetd fix at ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/openserver/ or ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/openserver/CSSA-2001-SCO.10/ as both libsocket.so.2 and libresolv.so.1 with instructions for installing on pre-OSR506 systems. It's probably a good idea to install these patches before trying to compile/use MySQL.

2.6.5.9 SCO UnixWare Version 7.1.x Notes

On UnixWare 7.1.0, you must use a version of MySQL at least as recent as 3.22.13 to get fixes for some portability and OS problems.

We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on UnixWare Version 7.1.x:

CC=cc CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you want to use gcc, you must use gcc 2.95.2 or newer.

CC=gcc CXX=g++ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

  1. SCO provides Operating Systems Patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7 for UnixWare 7.1.1 and 7.1.3 and at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openunix8 for OpenUNIX 8.0.0.
  2. SCO provides information about Security Fixes at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenUNIX for OpenUNIX and at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/UnixWare for UnixWare.

2.6.6 OS/2 Notes

MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the following to your `CONFIG.SYS' file:

SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024

If you don't do this, you will probably run into the following error:

File 'xxxx' not found (Errcode: 24)

When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL must be installed on a partition with a type that supports long filenames, such as HPFS, FAT32, etc.

The `INSTALL.CMD' script must be run from OS/2's own `CMD.EXE' and may not work with replacement shells such as `4OS2.EXE'.

The `scripts/mysql-install-db' script has been renamed. It is now called `install.cmd' and is a REXX script, which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.

Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be compiled using the Pthreads run-time library.

gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
    -o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf

Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed 8 characters. Modules are stored in the `/mysql2/udf' directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will put this directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules, specified extensions are ignored--it is assumed to be `.udf'. For example, in Unix, the shared module might be named `example.so' and you would load a function from it like this:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME 'example.so';

In OS/2, the module would be named `example.udf', but you would not specify the module extension:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME 'example';

2.6.7 BeOS Notes

We have in the past talked with some BeOS developers that have said that MySQL is 80% ported to BeOS, but we haven't heard from them in a while.

2.7 Perl Installation Notes

Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. The interface requires Perl Version 5.6.0 or later. It will not work if you have an older version of Perl.

If you want to use transactions with Perl DBI, you need to have DBD::mysql version 1.2216 or newer. Version 2.9003 or newer is recommended.

Note that if you are using MySQL 4.1 client library, you must use 2.9003 or newer.

As of Version 3.22.8, Perl support is no longer included with MySQL distributions. You can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or using the ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.

Perl support for MySQL must be installed if you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

2.7.1 Installing Perl on Unix

MySQL Perl support requires that you've installed MySQL client programming support (libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necesssary files. However, if you installed MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure that you've installed the developer RPM. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM.

If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from the CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.

The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:

shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql

The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests require being able to connect to the local MySQL server as the anonymous user with no password. If you have removed anonymous accounts or assigned them passwords, the tests fail. You can use force install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.

DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may already be installed; if not, you should install it before installing DBI.

It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `DBI-VERSION'.
  2. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd DBI-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as that all your DBI scripts fail after you upgrade MySQL.

If you don't have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful:

http://servers.digitaldaze.com/extensions/perl/modules.php#modules

Look under the heading Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.

2.7.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:

  • Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/ and install it.
  • Open a console window (a ``DOS window'').
  • If required, set the HTTP_proxy variable. For example, you might try:
    set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
    
  • Start the PPM program:
    C:\> c:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
    
  • If you have not already done so, install DBI:
    ppm> install DBI
    
  • If this succeeds, run the following command:
    install \
    ftp://ftp.de.uu.net/pub/CPAN/authors/id/JWIED/DBD-mysql-1.2212.x86.ppd
    

This procedure should work at least with ActiveState Perl Version 5.6.

If you can't get the procedure to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.7.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it can't find the `../mysql/mysql.so' module, then the problem is probably that Perl can't locate the shared library `libmysqlclient.so'.

You should be able to fix this by one of the following methods:

  • Compile the DBD::mysql distribution with perl Makefile.PL -static -config rather than perl Makefile.PL.
  • Copy `libmysqlclient.so' to the directory where your other shared libraries are located (probably `/usr/lib' or `/lib').
  • Modify the -L options used to compile DBD::mysql to reflect the actual location of `libmysqlclient.so'.
  • On Linux you can add the pathname of the directory where `libmysqlclient.so' is located to the `/etc/ld.so.conf' file.
  • Add the pathname of the directory where `libmysqlclient.so' is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable. Some systems use LD_LIBRARY_PATH instead.

Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in `/lib' and the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to the existing link command.

If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the `mysql.so' library gets built (check the output from make for `mysql.so' when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where `libgcc.a' is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren't both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.

You may see the following error from DBD::mysql when you run the tests:

t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed:
Can't load '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol:
uncompress at /usr/lib/perl5/5.00503/i586-linux/DynaLoader.pm line 169.

This means that you need to include the -lz compression library on the link line. That can be done by changing the following line in the file `lib/DBD/mysql/Install.pm':

$sysliblist .= " -lm";

Change that line to:

$sysliblist .= " -lm -lz";

After this, you must run make realclean and then proceed with the installation from the beginning.

If you want to install DBI on SCO, you have to edit the `Makefile' in DBI-xxx and each subdirectory.

Note that the following assumes gcc 2.95.2 or newer:

OLD:                                  NEW:
CC = cc                               CC = gcc
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport       CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport              CCDLFLAGS =

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib       LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib      LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -Od                        OPTIMISE = -O1

OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

This is because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if they were compiled with icc or cc.

If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn't support dynamic linking (like SCO) you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD::mysql. The way this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install it on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally has the DBD code linked in, and install that.

On SCO, you must have the following environment variables set:

shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib
Or:
shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:\
/usr/skunk/man:

First, create a Perl that includes a statically linked DBI module by running these commands in the directory where your DBI distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On SCO, this is make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.

Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically linked DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your DBD::mysql distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Finally, you should install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the command to use.


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